Thomas Young
Polymath, Physicist
Thomas Young
Thomas Young was an English polymath. He is famous for having partly deciphered Egyptian hieroglyphics before Jean-François Champollion eventually expanded on his work. He was admired by, among others, Herschel, Helmholtz, Maxwell, and Einstein. Young made notable scientific contributions to the fields of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, language, musical harmony and Egyptology.
Biography
Thomas Young's personal information overview.
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Film review: Apollo 18 (2.5 stars) - National Post (blog)
Google News - over 5 years
Thomas Young, you are go for launch; Bjorn MacHelsing, you're grounded!) Things go well at first. Spanish director Gonzalo Lopez-Gallego, in his English-language debut, is using either actual NASA footage or some clever recreations
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Youth 'carrying lot of anger' - Southland Times
Google News - over 5 years
Shaun Thomas Young, 18, of Dunedin, and Jade Diane Ackland, 18, of Greenfield, appeared before Judge Stephen O'Driscoll charged with assaulting Jordan White on February 6. The court was told Mr White was the former boyfriend of Ackland
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Muskets fired in salute to 7 who fought for liberty - Spartanburg Herald Journal
Google News - over 5 years
Thomas Young, Christopher Brandon, William Kennedy, William Kennedy Jr. and William Sharp. “Most of these men were related to each other or married into the family,” said Mark Anthony, secretary of the Daniel Morgan Chapter and president of the South
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Bluepeak Asset Management Announced the Launch of GreenNow™ an ... - San Francisco Chronicle (press release)
Google News - over 5 years
Figuring out how to get the most of your expenditures and going green can be challenging," says Thomas Young, Managing Partner at Bluepeak Asset Management. Mr. Young goes on to say, "Our definition of going green means that a real estate business can
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Ardella Young Person - Newport Independent
Google News - over 5 years
Funeral services will be held Saturday, Aug. 27, 2011 at St. Paul AME Church with interment to follow at New Hope Cemetery in Tuckerman. Rev. Thomas Young will officiate. Visitation will be held Saturday, Aug. 27, 2011 from 10-10:45 am at St. Paul AME
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Trina Solar Limited's CEO Discusses Q2 2011 Results - Earnings Call Transcript - Seeking Alpha
Google News - over 5 years
I would now like to turn the call over to our host, Senior Director, Investor Relations, Thomas Young. You may begin your conference. Thank you, operator. Good day to all and welcome to Trina Solar's second quarter 2011 earnings conference call
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100 Black Men of Greater Mobile presents acclaimed Three Tenors at the Saenger ... - Press-Register - al.com (blog)
Google News - over 5 years
Musicians from the Mobile Symphony Orchestra will accompany the Tenors — Victor Trent Cook, Rodrick Dixon and Thomas Young — formerly of 3 Mo Tenors, who blend opera, jazz, Broadway and gospel genres to audiences around the world. Tickets are $30
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Dateline Pittsburgh for 07/31/11 - Pittsburgh Post Gazette
Google News - over 5 years
Brentwood Bank recently appointed Nicholas Garrubba executive vice president for loan and credit administration; Thomas Young senior vice president administration and treasurer; David Hrycko vice president, and still chief accounting officer;
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Writing was on the wall that Chad Henne, not a big name veteran, would be ... - Palm Beach Post (blog)
Google News - over 5 years
Refreshed the running game with Daniel Thomas' young, powerful legs. Added speed in Reggie Bush and Clyde Gates. Brought in an almost entirely new offensive coaching staff and playbook. Why? Because with the NFL lockout cancelling the offseason program
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Council tables new engineering contract - The Buckeye Lake Beacon
Google News - over 5 years
ISO Field Representative Thomas Young said the field work should take two to three days to complete, but another 60 to 90 days is necessary to determine the village's new rating. Basically, the ISO rates fire departments on a scale of one to 10 as far
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Agendas of public meetings, July 28 - StandardNet
Google News - over 5 years
By Contributed Appeal of decision by city council regarding application by Perry Dental to remove city-owned trees in Highway 89 Park strip in front of 2535 S. Highway 89 Final approval for subdivision plat for Thomas Young Subdivision No
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Saints free agent list/NFL calendar - Daily Comet
Google News - over 5 years
LIKELY TO STAY: Bushrod, Charleston, Hargrove, Harper, M. Mitchell, Moore, Reis, Strief, Thomas, Young. LIKELY TO LEAVE: Betts, Jones, K. Mitchell, Wynn. TOSSUP: Ayodele, Clark, Evans, Giordano, Goodwin, Humphrey, Prioleau, Roby, Shanle, Sharper,
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Young Socceroos goalie to miss World Cup - Ninemsn
Google News - over 5 years
The Young Socceroos have suffered another injury blow ahead of their under-20 World Cup campaign in Colombia with the loss of goalkeeper Lawrence Thomas. Young Socceroos head coach Jan Versleijen announced Thomas would be replaced with Scottish-based
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'Crowdfunding' helps startups grow quickly - Foster's Daily Democrat
Google News - over 5 years
DURHAM — Thomas Young's foray into earbud manufacturing came when he discovered a tangled heap of busted headphones in his son's room. Tired of constantly replacing the spent earbuds, the audio engineer and Durham resident decided
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Future of tennis at ORC - Mississauga
Google News - over 5 years
Among the hopefuls were Canadians Filip Peliwo playing against Thomas Young (seen here). Staff photo by Rob Beintema The Ontario Racquet Club in Clarkson is becoming the centre stage for tennis development in Canada. The facility is hosting the Canada
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Swimming: Young adds bronze to Berlin medal haul - Westmorland Gazette
Google News - over 5 years
By Patrick O'Kane » Senior News/Sport Reporter THOMAS Young has added a bronze medal to his gold at the IPC European Swimming Championships in Berlin this afternoon, Tuesday. Young, 19, from Newbiggin, came home third behind countrymen Sam and Oliver ... -
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Thomas Young
    FIFTIES
  • 1829
    Age 55
    Thomas Young died in London on 10 May 1829, and was buried in the cemetery of St. Giles Church in Farnborough, Kent, England.
    More Details Hide Details Westminster Abbey houses a white marble tablet in memory of Young bearing an epitaph by Hudson Gurney: Young was highly regarded by his friends and colleagues. He was said never to impose his knowledge, but if asked was able to answer even the most difficult scientific question with ease. Although very learned he had a reputation for sometimes having difficulty in communicating his knowledge. It was said by one of his contemporaries that His words were not those in familiar use, and the arrangement of his ideas seldom the same as those he conversed with. He was therefore worse calculated than any man I ever knew for the communication of knowledge. Later scholars and scientists have praised Young's work although they may know him only through achievements he made in their fields. His contemporary Sir John Herschel called him a "truly original genius". Albert Einstein praised him in the 1931 foreword to an edition of Newton's Opticks. Other admirers include physicist Lord Rayleigh and Nobel laureate Philip Anderson.
  • 1828
    Age 54
    In 1828, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
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  • 1827
    Age 53
    A few years before his death he became interested in life insurance, and in 1827 he was chosen one of the eight foreign associates of the French Academy of Sciences.
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  • 1826
    Age 52
    Champollion did acknowledge some of Young's contribution, but rather sparingly. However, after 1826, when Champollion was a curator in the Louvre, he did offer Young access to demotic manuscripts.
    More Details Hide Details He developed Young temperament, a method of tuning musical instruments. Though he sometimes dealt with religious topics of history in Egypt and wrote about the history of Christianity in Nubia, not much is known about Young's personal religious views. On George Peacock's account, Young never spoke to him about morals, metaphysics or religion, though according to Young's wife, his attitudes showed that "his Quaker upbringing had strongly influenced his religious practices." Authority sources have described Young in terms of a cultural Christian Quaker. Hudson Gurney informed that before his marriage, Young had to join the Church of England, and was baptized later. After his work on physics received some criticism from Henry Brougham, Young stated: "I have resolved to confine my studies and my pen to medical subjects only. For the talents which God has not given me, I am not responsible, but those which I possess, I have hitherto cultivated and employed as diligently as my opportunities have allowed me to do; and I shall continue to apply them with assiduity, and in tranquillity, to that profession which has constantly been the ultimate object of all my labours.
  • FORTIES
  • 1823
    Age 49
    Nevertheless, in 1823, Young published an Account of the Recent Discoveries in Hieroglyphic Literature and Egyptian Antiquities, to have his own work recognised as the basis for Champollion's system.
    More Details Hide Details Young had correctly found the sound value of six hieroglyphic signs, but had not deduced the grammar of the language. Young, himself, acknowledged that he was somewhat at a disadvantage because Champollion's knowledge of the relevant languages, such as Coptic, was much greater. Several scholars have suggested that Young's true contribution to Egyptology was his decipherment of the Demotic script. He made the first major advances in this area; he also correctly identified Demotic as being composed by both ideographic and phonetic signs. Subsequently, Young felt that Champollion was unwilling to share the credit for the decipherment. In the ensuing controversy, strongly motivated by the political tensions of that time, the British tended to champion Young, while the French mostly championed Champollion. In England, while Sir George Lewis still doubted Champollion's achievement as late as 1862, others were more friendly. For example, Reginald Poole, and Sir Peter Le Page Renouf both defended Champollion.
  • 1822
    Age 48
    When Champollion in 1822 published a translation of the hieroglyphs and the key to the grammatical system, Young (and many others) praised his work.
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    Young was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1822.
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  • 1818
    Age 44
    Some of Young's conclusions appeared in the famous article "Egypt" he wrote for the 1818 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
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  • 1814
    Age 40
    By 1814 Young had completely translated the "enchorial" (demotic, in modern terms) text of the Rosetta Stone (he had a list with 86 demotic words), and then studied the hieroglyphic alphabet but initially failed to recognise that the demotic and hieroglyphic texts were paraphrases and not simple translations.
    More Details Hide Details There was considerable rivalry between Thomas Young and Jean-François Champollion while both were working on hieroglyphic decipherment. At first they briefly cooperated in their work, but later, from around 1815, a chill arose between them. For many years they kept details of their work away from each other.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1813
    Age 39
    Young made significant contribution in the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs. He started his Egyptology work rather late, in 1813, when the work was already in progress among other researchers.
    More Details Hide Details He began by using a demotic alphabet of 29 letters built up by Johan David Åkerblad in 1802 (14 turned out to be incorrect). Åkerblad was correct in stressing the importance of the demotic text in trying to read the inscriptions, but he wrongly believed that demotic was entirely alphabetic.
    In a separate work in 1813, he introduced the term Indo-European languages, 165 years after the Dutch linguist and scholar Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn proposed the grouping to which this term refers in 1647.
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  • 1808
    Age 34
    In physiology Young made an important contribution to haemodynamics in the Croonian lecture for 1808 on the "Functions of the Heart and Arteries," where he derived a formula for the wave speed of the pulse and his medical writings included An Introduction to Medical Literature, including a System of Practical Nosology (1813) and A Practical and Historical Treatise on Consumptive Diseases (1815).
    More Details Hide Details Young devised a rule of thumb for determining a child's drug dosage. Young's Rule states that the child dosage is equal to the adult dosage multiplied by the child's age in years, divided by the sum of 12 plus the child's age. In an appendix to his Göttingen dissertation (1796; "De corporis hvmani viribvs conservatricibvs. Dissertatio.") there are four pages added proposing a universal phonetic alphabet (so as 'not to leave these pages blank'; lit.: "Ne vacuae starent hae paginae, libuit e praelectione ante disputationem habenda tabellam literarum vniuersalem raptim describere"). It includes 16 "pure" vowel symbols, nasal vowels, various consonants, and examples of these, drawn primarily from French and English. In his Encyclopædia Britannica article "Languages", Young compared the grammar and vocabulary of 400 languages.
  • 1807
    Age 33
    Furthermore, the idea can be traced to a paper by Leonhard Euler published in 1727, some 80 years before Thomas Young's 1807 paper.
    More Details Hide Details The Young's modulus relates the stress (pressure) in a body to its associated strain (change in length as a ratio of the original length); that is, stress = E × strain, for a uniaxially loaded specimen. Young's modulus is independent of the component under investigation; that is, it is an inherent material property (the term modulus refers to an inherent material property). Young's Modulus allowed, for the first time, prediction of the strain in a component subject to a known stress (and vice versa). Prior to Young's contribution, engineers were required to apply Hooke's F = kx relationship to identify the deformation (x) of a body subject to a known load (F), where the constant (k) is a function of both the geometry and material under consideration. Finding k required physical testing for any new component, as the F = kx relationship is a function of both geometry and material. Young's Modulus depends only on the material, not its geometry, thus allowing a revolution in engineering strategies.
    Young described the characterization of elasticity that came to be known as Young's modulus, denoted as E, in 1807, and further described it in his Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts.
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  • 1804
    Age 30
    In the subsequent paper entitled Experiments and Calculations Relative to Physical Optics, published in 1804, Young describes an experiment in which he placed a narrow card (approx. 1/30th in.) in a beam of light from a single opening in a window and observed the fringes of colour in the shadow and to the sides of the card.
    More Details Hide Details He observed that placing another card before or after the narrow strip so as to prevent light from the beam from striking one of its edges caused the fringes to disappear. This supported the contention that light is composed of waves. Young performed and analysed a number of experiments, including interference of light from reflection off nearby pairs of micrometre grooves, from reflection off thin films of soap and oil, and from Newton's rings. He also performed two important diffraction experiments using fibres and long narrow strips. In his Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts (1807) he gives Grimaldi credit for first observing the fringes in the shadow of an object placed in a beam of light. Within ten years, much of Young's work was reproduced and then extended by Fresnel. (Tony Rothman in Everything's Relative and Other Fables from Science and Technology argues that there is no clear evidence that Young actually did the two-slit experiment. See also Newton wave–particle duality.)
  • TWENTIES
  • 1803
    Age 29
    This is how Thomas Young speaking on 24 November 1803, to the Royal Society of London, began his description of the historic experiment.
    More Details Hide Details His talk was published in the following year's Philosophical Transactions, and was destined to become a classic, still reprinted and read today.
    He resigned his professorship in 1803, fearing that its duties would interfere with his medical practice.
    More Details Hide Details His lectures were published in 1807 in the Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and contain a number of anticipations of later theories. In 1811 Young became physician to St George's Hospital, and in 1814 he served on a committee appointed to consider the dangers involved in the general introduction of gas into London. In 1816 he was secretary of a commission charged with ascertaining the precise length of the second's or seconds pendulum (the length of a pendulum whose period is exactly 2 seconds), and in 1818 he became secretary to the Board of Longitude and superintendent of the HM Nautical Almanac Office.
  • 1802
    Age 28
    In 1802, he was appointed foreign secretary of the Royal Society, of which he had been elected a fellow in 1794.
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  • 1801
    Age 27
    In 1801 Young was appointed professor of natural philosophy (mainly physics) at the Royal Institution.
    More Details Hide Details In two years he delivered 91 lectures.
  • 1799
    Age 25
    In the same year he inherited the estate of his granduncle, Richard Brocklesby, which made him financially independent, and in 1799 he established himself as a physician at 48 Welbeck Street, London (now recorded with a blue plaque).
    More Details Hide Details Young published many of his first academic articles anonymously to protect his reputation as a physician.
  • 1797
    Age 23
    In 1797 he entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge.
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  • TEENAGE
  • 1792
    Age 18
    Young began to study medicine in London at St Bartholomew's Hospital in 1792, moved to the University of Edinburgh Medical School in 1794, and a year later went to Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany, where he obtained the degree of doctor of medicine in 1796 from the University of Göttingen.
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  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1782
    Age 8
    However, the first use of the concept of Young's modulus in experiments was by Giordano Riccati in 1782 – predating Young by 25 years.
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  • 1773
    Born
    Young belonged to a Quaker family of Milverton, Somerset, where he was born in 1773, the eldest of ten children.
    More Details Hide Details At the age of fourteen Young had learned Greek and Latin and was acquainted with French, Italian, Hebrew, German, Aramaic, Syriac, Samaritan, Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Amharic.
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