W. Averell Harriman
American businessman, politician and diplomat
W. Averell Harriman
William Averell Harriman was an American Democratic Party politician, businessman, and diplomat. He was the son of railroad baron E. H. Harriman. He served as Secretary of Commerce under President Harry S. Truman and later as the 48th Governor of New York. He was a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1952, and again in 1956 when he was endorsed by President Truman but lost to Adlai Stevenson both times.
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W. Averell Harriman's personal information overview.
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Tướng Kỳ - Một cuộc đời nhiều khen chê - BBC Tiếng Việt
Google News - over 5 years
Tinh thần tự chủ, độc lập của ông thể hiện qua cách đối đáp với tướng Lewis W. Walt, Đại sứ Maxwell Taylor, với nhà ngoại giao Averell W. Harriman, hay Bộ trưởng Quốc phòng Robert McNamara, các Thượng nghị sĩ William J. Fulbright, George McGovern
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Google News article
AAR hands out annual Harriman, Hammond awards - Progressive Rail Roading
Google News - almost 6 years
Founded in 1913 by the late Mary W. Harriman in memory of her husband, railroad pioneer Edward H. Harriman, the awards recognize railroads that achieved the lowest casualty rates per 200000 manhours. The awards are administered by the EH Harriman
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Google News article
Harriman Awards: NS streak at 22 - RailwayAge Magazine
Google News - almost 6 years
The Harriman Awards were established by the late Mrs. Mary W. Harriman in memory of her husband, Edward H. Harriman, whom the ARR refers to as “an American legend in railroading.” Today, the awards are administered by the EH Harriman Memorial Awards
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Google News article
Paid Notice: Deaths GERRY, ELBRIDGE T.
NYTimes - almost 18 years
GERRY-Elbridge T. Died on February 26, at the age of 90, following a short illness at his home in Delhi, NY. Survived by his wife of 67 years, Marjorie Kane, two sons Elbridge T. Jr., of Locust Valley, NY, and Peter G. of Hopewell, NJ, a daughter Marjorie G. Ryland of Beverly, MA, two brothers Edward H. Gerry and Henry A. Gerry, 11 grandchildren
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NYTimes article
William Hughes Mulligan, 78, Judge and Dean of Law School
NYTimes - almost 21 years
William Hughes Mulligan, a retired New York lawyer who was dean of the Fordham University School of Law and a Federal appeals court judge, died yesterday at Lawrence Hospital in Bronxville, N.Y. A Bronxville resident, he was 78. The cause was complications from a stroke, the university said. Mr. Mulligan also took part in Roman Catholic activities
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NYTimes article
Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of W. Averell Harriman
    LATE_ADULTHOOD
  • 1986
    Age 94
    He died on July 26, 1986 in Yorktown Heights, New York, at the age of 94.
    More Details Hide Details Averell and Pamela Harriman are buried at the Arden Farm Graveyard in Arden, New York.
  • 1978
    Age 86
    Harriman was appointed senior member of the US Delegation to the United Nations General Assembly's Special Session on Disarmament in 1978.
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  • 1973
    Age 81
    In 1973 he was interviewed in the now famous TV documentary series, The World at War, where he gives a recollection of his experiences as Roosevelt's Personal Representative in Britain along with his views on Cold War politics; in particular Poland and the Warsaw Pact; along with the exchanges he witnessed between Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin.
    More Details Hide Details In one such recollection he describes Stalin as utterly cruel.
  • 1971
    Age 79
    His third and final marriage was in 1971 to Pamela Beryl Digby Churchill Hayward, the former wife of Winston Churchill's son Randolph, and widow of Broadway producer Leland Hayward.
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  • 1969
    Age 77
    Harriman received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, with Distinction, in 1969 and West Point's Sylvanus Thayer Award in 1975.
    More Details Hide Details Furthermore, in 1983 he received the Freedom Medal.
  • 1963
    Age 71
    Harriman certainly supported the coup against the South Vietnam president Ngo Dinh Diem in 1963.
    More Details Hide Details However, it is alleged that the orders that ended in the deaths of Diem and his brother actually originated with Harriman and were carried out by Henry Cabot Lodge's military assistant. The fundamental question about the murders was the sudden and unusual recall of Saigon Station Chief John "Jocko" Richardson by an unknown authority. Special Operations Army officer, John Michael Dunn, was sent to Vietnam in his stead. He followed the orders of Harriman and Forrestal rather than the CIA. According to Corson, Dunn's role in the incident has never been made public but he was assigned to Ambassador Lodge for "special operations" with the authority to act without hindrance; and he was known to have access to the coup plotters. Corson speculated that with Richardson recalled the way was clear for Dunn to freely act.
    According to Colonel William Corson, USMC, by 1963 Harriman was running "Vietnam without consulting the president or the attorney general."
    More Details Hide Details Corson said Kenny O'Donnell, JFK's appointments secretary, was convinced that the National Security Advisor, McGeorge Bundy, followed the orders of Harriman rather than the president. Corson also claimed that O'Donnell was particularly concerned about Michael Forrestal, a young White House staffer who handled liaison on Vietnam with Harriman.
    President-elect Kennedy appointed Harriman as ambassador-at-large, to operate "with the full confidence of the president and an intimate knowledge of all aspects of United States policy." But by 1963, Kennedy had come to suspect the loyalty of certain members on his national security team.
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  • 1961
    Age 69
    In December 1961, Anatoliy Golitsyn defected from the Soviet Union and accused Harriman of being a Soviet spy, but his claims were dismissed by the CIA and Harriman remained in his position until April 1963, when he became Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs.
    More Details Hide Details He retained that position during the transition to the Johnson administration until March 1965 when he again became Ambassador at Large. He held that position for the remainder of Johnson's presidency. Harriman headed the U.S. delegation to the preliminary peace talks in Paris between the United States and North Vietnam (1968–69).
    Despite the failure of his presidential ambitions, Harriman became a widely respected elder statesman of the party. In January 1961, he was appointed Ambassador at Large in the Kennedy administration, a position he held until November, when he became Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs.
    More Details Hide Details During this period he advocated U.S. support of a neutral government in Laos and helped to negotiate the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963.
  • 1958
    Age 66
    He served as governor for one term until Republican Nelson Rockefeller unseated him in 1958.
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  • 1954
    Age 62
    In the 1954 race to succeed Republican Thomas E. Dewey as Governor of New York, Harriman defeated Dewey's protege, U.S. Senator Irving M. Ives, by a tiny margin.
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  • 1952
    Age 60
    Harriman was a candidate for the Democratic Presidential Nomination in 1952, and again in 1956 when he was endorsed by Truman but lost (both times) to Illinois governor Adlai Stevenson.
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    He was a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1952, and again in 1956 when he was endorsed by President Truman but lost to Adlai Stevenson both times.
    More Details Hide Details Harriman served President Franklin D. Roosevelt as special envoy to Europe and served as the U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union and U.S. Ambassador to Britain. He served in numerous U.S. diplomatic assignments in the Kennedy and Johnson Administrations. He was a core member of the group of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men". Better known as Averell Harriman, he was born in New York City, the son of railroad baron Edward Henry Harriman and Mary Williamson Averell. He was the brother of E. Roland Harriman and Mary Harriman Rumsey. Harriman was a close friend of Hall Roosevelt, the brother of Eleanor Roosevelt.
  • FIFTIES
  • 1951
    Age 59
    Harriman was then sent to Tehran in July 1951 to mediate between Iran and Britain in the wake of the Iranian nationalization of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.
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  • 1948
    Age 56
    In 1948, he was put in charge of the Marshall Plan.
    More Details Hide Details In Paris, he became friendly with the CIA agent Irving Brown, who organised anti-communist unions and organisations.
  • 1946
    Age 54
    From April to October 1946, he was ambassador to Britain, but he was soon appointed to become United States Secretary of Commerce under President Harry S. Truman to replace Henry A. Wallace, a critic of Truman's foreign policies.
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    Harriman served as ambassador to the Soviet Union until January 1946.
    More Details Hide Details When he returned to the United States, he worked hard to get George Kennan's Long Telegram into wide distribution. Kennan's analysis, which generally lined up with Harriman's, became the cornerstone of Truman's Cold War strategy of containment.
  • 1945
    Age 53
    In 1945, while Ambassador to the Soviet Union, Harriman was presented with a Trojan Horse gift. In 1952, the gift, a carved wood Great Seal of the United States, which had adorned "the ambassador's Moscow residential office" in Spaso House, was found to be bugged.
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  • 1943
    Age 51
    At the Tehran Conference in late 1943 Harriman was tasked with placating a suspicious Churchill while Roosevelt attempted to gain the confidence of Stalin.
    More Details Hide Details The conference highlighted the divisions between the United States and Britain about the postwar world. Churchill was intent on maintaining Britain's empire and carving the postwar world into spheres of influence while the United States upheld the principles of self-determination as laid out in the Atlantic Charter. Harriman mistrusted the Soviet leader's motives and intentions and opposed the spheres approach as it would give Stalin a free hand in eastern Europe. Harriman also attended the Yalta Conference, where he encouraged taking a stronger line with the Soviet Union—especially on questions of Poland. After Roosevelt's death, he attended the final "Big Three" conference at Potsdam. Although the new president, Harry Truman, was receptive to Harriman's anti-Soviet hard line advice, the new secretary of state, James Byrnes, managed to sideline him. While in Berlin, he noted the tight security imposed by Soviet military authorities and the beginnings of a program of reparations by which the Soviets were stripping out German industry.
    Harriman was appointed as United States Ambassador to the Soviet Union in 1943.
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  • 1942
    Age 50
    In the summer of 1942, Harriman accompanied Churchill to the Moscow Conference to explain to Stalin why the western allies were carrying out operations in North Africa instead of opening the promised second front in France.
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  • FORTIES
  • 1941
    Age 49
    On November 25, 1941 (twelve days before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor), he noted that "The United States Navy is shooting the Germans—German submarines and aircraft at sea".
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    He was present at the meeting between FDR and Winston Churchill at Placentia Bay, in August 1941, which yielded the Atlantic Charter, a common declaration of principles of the United States and the UK.
    More Details Hide Details He was subsequently dispatched to Moscow to negotiate the terms of the Lend-Lease agreement with the Soviet Union. His promise of $1 billion in aid technically exceeded his brief. Determined to win over the doubtful American public, he used his own funds to purchase time on CBS radio to explain the program in terms of enlightened self-interest. This skepticism lifted with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
    Beginning in the spring of 1941, Harriman served President Franklin D. Roosevelt as a special envoy to Europe and helped coordinate the Lend-Lease program.
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  • 1938
    Age 46
    Harriman's banking business was the main Wall Street connection for German companies and the varied U.S. financial interests of Fritz Thyssen; who was a financial backer of the Nazi party until 1938.
    More Details Hide Details The Trading With the Enemy Act (enacted on October 6, 1917) classified any business transactions for profit with enemy nations as illegal, and any funds or assets involved were subject to seizure by the U.S. government. The declaration of war on the U.S. by Hitler led to the U.S. government order on October 20, 1942 to seize German interests in the U.S. which included Harriman's operations in New York City. The Harriman business interests seized under the act in October and November 1942 included: The assets were held by the government for the duration of the war, then returned afterward; UBC was dissolved in 1951.
  • 1937
    Age 45
    He served as Chairman of The Business Council, then known as the Business Advisory Council for the United States Department of Commerce in 1937 and 1939.
    More Details Hide Details Harriman's older sister, Mary Rumsey, encouraged Averell to leave his finance job and work with her and their friends, the Roosevelts, to advance the goals of the New Deal. Averell joined the NRA National Recovery Administration, the first government consumer rights group, marking the beginning of his political career. Following the death of August Belmont, Jr., in 1924, Harriman, George Walker, and Joseph E. Widener purchased much of Belmont's thoroughbred breeding stock. Harriman raced under the name of Arden Farms. Among his horses, Chance Play won the 1927 Jockey Club Gold Cup. He also raced in partnership with Walker under the name Log Cabin Stable before buying him out. U.S. Racing Hall of Fame inductee Louis Feustel, trainer of Man o' War, trained the Log Cabin horses until 1926. Of the partnership's successful runners purchased from the August Belmont estate, Ladkin is best remembered for defeating the European star Epinard in the International Special.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1931
    Age 39
    In 1931, it merged with Brown Bros. & Co. to create the highly successful Wall Street firm Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.
    More Details Hide Details Notable employees included George Herbert Walker and his son-in-law Prescott Bush. Harriman's main properties included Brown Brothers & Harriman & Co, Union Pacific Railroad, Merchant Shipping Corporation, and venture capital investments that included the Polaroid Corporation. Harriman's associated properties included the Southern Pacific Railroad (including the Central Pacific Railroad), Illinois Central Railroad, Wells Fargo & Co., the Pacific Mail Steamship Co. American Ship & Commerce, Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt-Aktiengesellschaft (HAPAG), the American Hawaiian Steamship Co. United American Lines, the Guaranty Trust Company, and the Union Banking Corporation.
  • 1927
    Age 35
    In 1927 his brother Roland joined the business and the name was changed to Harriman Brothers & Company.
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  • 1922
    Age 30
    Using money from his father he established W.A. Harriman & Co banking business in 1922.
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  • TWENTIES
  • 1913
    Age 21
    He attended Groton School in Massachusetts before going on to Yale where he joined the Skull and Bones society. He graduated in 1913.
    More Details Hide Details After graduating, he inherited the largest fortune in America and became Yale's youngest Crew coach. His first marriage, two years after graduating from Yale, was to Kitty Lanier Lawrence. Lawrence was the great-granddaughter of James Lanier, a co-founder of Winslow, Lanier & Co., and the granddaughter of Charles D. Lanier (1837-1926), a close friend of Pierpont Morgan Together, Harriman and Lawrence had two daughters: He divorced Lawrence in 1928 and she later died in 1936. About a year after his divorce from Lawrence, he married Marie Norton Whitney, who had left her husband, Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney, to marry him. On their honeymoon in Europe, they purchased oil paintings by Van Gogh, Degas, Cézanne, Picasso, and Renoir. She and her husband later donated many of the works she bought and collected, including those of the artist Walt Kuhn, to the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. They remained married until her death on September 26, 1970, at George Washington University Hospital in Washington, D.C.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1899
    Age 7
    During the summer of 1899, Harriman's father organized the Harriman Alaska Expedition, a philanthropic-scientific survey of coastal Alaska and Russia that attracted 25 of the leading scientific, naturalist, and artist luminaries of the day, including John Muir, John Burroughs, George Bird Grinnell, C.
    More Details Hide Details Hart Merriam, Grove Karl Gilbert, and Edward Curtis, along with 100 family members and staff, aboard the steamship George Elder. Young Harriman would have his first introduction to Russia, a nation on which he would spend a significant amount of attention in his later life in public service.
  • 1891
    Born
    Born on November 15, 1891.
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