William S. Clark
American chemist, botanist and college president
William S. Clark
William Smith Clark was a professor of chemistry, botany and zoology, a colonel during the American Civil War, and a leader in agricultural education. Raised and schooled in Easthampton, Massachusetts, Clark spent most of his adult life in Amherst, Massachusetts. He graduated from Amherst College in 1848 and obtained a doctorate in chemistry from Georgia Augusta University in Göttingen in 1852.
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William S. Clark's personal information overview.
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BIRTHS Staff reports - The Herald | HeraldOnline.com
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Mrs. Cline is the daughter of Robert and Joy Scott of Maiden, NC Paternal grandparents are Joey and Marie Cline of Mount Holly, NC Daniel Hayes and Carlene Clark of Sharon are the parents of a son, Daniel William Clark Hayes, born Aug. 11, 2011
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California couple embarks on historic route - KLEW
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... they say it will be quite an adventure. The reason why Tom and Nancy began their trip in Pittsburgh is because that was where Meriwether Lewis started his journey. Lewis met up with William Clark weeks later at Camp Dubois in what is now Indiana
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Groton reservist earns Defense Meritorious Service Medal - TheDay.com
Google News - over 5 years
Groton — Chief Mass Communications Specialist William Clark, a member of the Naval Reserve, Submarine Learning Center Headquarters Detachment in Groton, recently received the Defense Meritorious Service Medal. Clark deployed to Kabul, Afghanistan,
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Today In History - Sports Radio ESPN 1420
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In 1838, explorer William Clark died at the age of 65. He made up half the exploration team of Lewis and Clark. In 1859, the first Pullman sleeping car was put into service. In 1862, the first federal tax was imposed on tobacco
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The curious cases of William James Clark - Alaska Dispatch
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William Clark stumbled onto the scene and took advantage of the collective shock of the emergency responders and investigators with an unlikely story that somehow convinced them to allow him to take control of the cleanup for nearly three days
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100 years ago: City marks somber 48th anniversary of Quantrill's Raid - Lawrence Journal World
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By Sarah St. John “Forty-eight years ago Lawrence experienced the most trying day in the history of this city when William Clark Quantrill with his band of blood-thirsty guerillas rode into the town at sunrise and left it a few hours later a mass of
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Woman gets life for contract killing of husband - Atlanta Journal Constitution
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William Clark had traveled to Atlanta in December 2005 to meet Devaughn to make a bulk alcohol purchase for his bartending business. On Dec. 13, Devaughn lured the man to a partly completed subdivision in College Park, where he shot him multiple times
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William Clark Green has a duck, and a lot of luck - Corpus Christi Caller Times
Google News - over 5 years
But it actually is kind of a funny story involving Lubbock-based Texas country artist William Clark Green. “It's the best investment I've ever made, man,” Green said, laughing. “You go up to a girl at the bar and ask her if she wants to see your duck
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Simple urine test detects kidney disease - Times of India
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William Clark, MD, University of Western Ontario and London Health Sciences Centre, in London, Canada, and his colleagues followed 2574 participants in a community-based clinic for an average of seven years. They found that a positive dipstick urine
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Kidney doctor keeps it simple - London Free Press
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With kidney disease growing in Canada, nephrologist William Clark found that the urine test — a quick, painless way to flag diseases — can identify if your kidneys are susceptible to deterioration, causing premature death. “In the past, you would
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History Tidbit: 'Stolen' wooden leg is returned - Nebraska City News Press
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Chicago--Detectives Michael Murphy and William Clark answered a robbery alarm at the home of William M. Shorts today. “Somebody stole my wooden leg,” Shorts, 52, told them. Short's wife, Rosetta, 42, arrived home just then
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11-year-old wants postal service to honor Lewis and Clark slave with a stamp - Washington Post
Google News - over 5 years
Jackson, 11, chose to study a man known as York, William Clark's slave who traveled with the pair on their storied cross-country voyage. As he began his research, some troubling questions arose: What was his first name? Was he freed after the journey?
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Attractions at Pompey's Pillar, plus Clark Days this weekend - KTVQ Billings News
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They come to see the signature of one very important man in America's history, Captain William Clark. One attraction is the river walk, but it's not along the actual Yellowstone. It greets you as soon as you step out of your car
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Falkville library receives journals of Lewis and Clark - Hartselle Enquirer
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The Falkville Public Library is the recipient of the seven core volume set of books: The Definitive Journals of Lewis and Clark by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. The Definitive Journals of Lewis and Clark was donated by the Alabama Forest Owners'
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Authorities identify fisherman who drowned in the Androscoggin River - Press Herald
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BRUNSWICK — The Bath man, who drowned while fishing Sunday in the Androscoggin River, was identified today by Brunswick police as 39-year-old William Clark. Clark's body was recovered Sunday night by divers from the Maine State Police dive team
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of William S. Clark
    FIFTIES
  • 1886
    Age 59
    He died in Amherst on March 9, 1886 and is buried in Amherst's West Cemetery.
    More Details Hide Details Although he is almost forgotten in his home state of Massachusetts, Clark remains a national figure in Japan. His influences on the agricultural and economic development of Hokkaido were significant, but it is primarily his cultural message that still resonates today. According to historian Fumiko Fujita, Clark's phrase, "Boys, be ambitious!" is "almost immortal in Japan." The Japanese National Tourism Organization describes the slogan as "famous" and often quoted throughout the country. Historian John Maki wrote that many Japanese school textbooks "have carried brief accounts of Clark's work and his slogan", and that Clark's name appears on "schools, buildings, shops, confections and countless tourist souvenirs."
  • 1882
    Age 55
    Clark's missionary activities produced the Sapporo Independent Christian Church in 1882, founded by students of SAC.
    More Details Hide Details It was one of the first cells of Christianity in Japan after the Meiji Restoration. Eventually, ten of the signers of Clark's "Covenant in the Believers of Jesus," raised funds to build the William S. Clark Memorial Church in Sapporo in 1922. The church was demolished in 1962, but rebuilt in another location and still houses the original "Covenant" as well as several Bibles Clark brought to Sapporo. In the United States, Clark's primary legacy is one of ongoing cooperation between the two colleges he founded, now the University of Massachusetts Amherst and the University of Hokkaido. Student and faculty exchanges were informal for many years until, according to journalist Daniel Fitzgibbons, the early 1960s when "the U.S. State Department contracted with the University to help strengthen the agricultural curriculum at Hokkaido. Through that program, 11 UMass faculty went to Sapporo and 52 Japanese faculty and students received advanced training in Amherst." Both universities maintain exchange programs through various academic departments.
  • 1881
    Age 54
    The Satemo Mining Company of Tangier, Nova Scotia (named by Clark after a Japanese word which, according to his translation, meant "all right") became a subsidiary of Clark & Bothwell in the summer of 1881.
    More Details Hide Details The company was among the first involved in the Nova Scotia gold rush of that period. In managing these mines, Clark took an active role as President. He traveled thousands of miles, recommending improvements to mills and machinery and overseeing the improvements. Meeting initial success, the company's worth soon amounted to millions of dollars. The good fortune extended throughout the town of Amherst where, according to biographer John Maki, there was a "craze in mining stocks" as Clark's friends, family, and former academic colleagues became heavily invested in the company. There were also substantial investors in New York, Boston, Philadelphia and other cities. The first sign of serious trouble for the company came in March 1882 when the Starr-Grove mine shut down due to lack of profit and increasing debt. The stock values of Clark & Bothwell's various mines immediately plunged and were soon unsaleable. The first of what was to be several lawsuits for investment money lost was brought in April 1882. The most damaging development came when one of the subsidiaries, the Stormont Mining Company, sued Clark & Bothwell for funds withheld from Stormont. It soon became apparent that Bothwell, as Treasurer, had mismanaged affairs at the company's New York office resulting in the firm's collapse. By May 1882, Bothwell was en route to San Francisco and was never heard from again. The scandal was national news and the resulting lawsuits played out in New York and New England newspapers.
    By the end of 1881 the company, with Clark as President, was involved in seven silver mines, predominantly in Utah and California.
    More Details Hide Details Although focused on the American West, the company had far-reaching interests spreading from Mexico to Nova Scotia.
    The firm of Clark & Bothwell opened for business on March 10, 1881 with offices at the corner of Nassau and Wall Street in New York City.
    More Details Hide Details The first mine in which the company became invested was the Starr-Grove silver mine, just south of present-day Battle Mountain, Nevada.
  • 1880
    Age 53
    Following this setback, Clark decided to depart from academia and teamed up with John R. Bothwell in 1880 to form the Clark & Bothwell mining company.
    More Details Hide Details For Clark, mining was a logical extension of his background in chemistry and geology. Exactly how Clark became associated with Bothwell, a man of questionable character who had been cashiered from the U.S. Army for fraud, is unknown. As an academic, Clark was ill-prepared for a financial career. This, coupled with Bothwell's disreputable history, would result in a short life for the firm.
  • 1879
    Age 52
    Infuriated by what he called, "time-serving politicians and unprincipled newspapers seeking only to float on the tide of public opinion," Clark resigned in 1879.
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    After resigning the presidency of MAC in 1879, Clark left academia to become the president of a mining company, Clark & Bothwell.
    More Details Hide Details The company, in operation from 1881 to 1882, purchased several silver mines, mostly in Utah and California. Clark's partner, John R. Bothwell, proved to be corrupt and the company quickly folded, destroying Clark's reputation, his own finances and the fortunes of many of his friends and family. The subsequent scandal ruined Clark's health.
  • 1877
    Age 50
    On the day of Clark's departure, April 16, 1877, students and faculty of SAC rode with him as far as the village of Shimamatsu, then outside of Sapporo.
    More Details Hide Details As recalled by one of the students, Masatake Oshima, after saying his farewells, Clark shouted, "Boys, be ambitious!" Several differing versions of Clark's parting words persist today including, "Boys, be ambitious, like this old man!" and, "Boys, be ambitious for Christ!" A painting of Clark's departure, rendered in 1971, hangs in the Prefectural Capitol building in Sapporo and includes a lengthier version of his parting words, "Boys, be ambitious! Be ambitious not for money or for selfish aggrandizement, not for that evanescent thing which men call fame. Be ambitious for that attainment of all that a man ought to be." After his retirement from MAC, Clark became interested in a scientific floating college proposed by entrepreneur and real estate developer James O. Woodruff. This innovative concept attracted national attention and planning moved swiftly. Funds were procured and Clark was named President of the Faculty. Before the enterprise could get underway, Woodruff's sudden death caused the abandonment of the scheme.
    In 1877, 31 students of SAC converted to Christianity, signing a document drafted by Clark titled, "The Covenant of Believers in Jesus."
    More Details Hide Details Some of them later played important roles in the fields of Christianity, education, and international relations during Japan's continuing modernization in the early 20th century. Alumni such as Uchimura Kanzō (founder of the non-church movement, a Japanese Christian society) and Nitobe Inazō (Quaker, educator and diplomat), still known nationwide in Japan, were from the second entering class of the College. During his stay in Hokkaido, Clark examined the local flora and introduced new species of plants and trees from Japan to the United States. He sent to Massachusetts a large assortment of seeds, many of which proved of special value to his own state, on account of the high latitude from which they were selected. In Teine-ku, Sapporo, he discovered a new lichen on the side of Mt. Teine, at an elevation of, which was named Cetraria clarkii, in his honor, by Edward Tuckerman.
  • FORTIES
  • 1876
    Age 49
    Clark spent eight months in Sapporo from 1876 to 1877.
    More Details Hide Details After enduring negative press in Massachusetts, he was pleased with the enthusiastic cooperation he received from the Japanese government. SAC was organized in just one month. Clark wrote to his wife, "I am actually rebuilding MAC... on the other side of the earth." In establishing SAC, Clark introduced the first American model farm and barn in Japan and the first college military unit in the country. He also introduced new crops and new techniques in agriculture, fishing, and animal husbandry. Clark’s direct superior while working at SAC was the Governor of Hokkaido (and future Prime Minister of Japan) Kuroda Kiyotaka. The two men greatly respected one another and shared a bond in that they both had past military experience. Their positive relationship facilitated Clark’s many accomplishments while in Sapporo and accounted for the wide latitude Clark was given in implementing not just SAC programs, but also his influence on the colonial development of Hokkaido.
    Clark signed his contract with the Japanese government on March 3, 1876, in Washington, DC.
    More Details Hide Details Due to inconsistencies in translation, discrepancies exist to this day as to what Clark’s official title was. According to biographer John Maki, the Japanese and English versions of Clark’s contract differed on this point. The Japanese version named Clark, "head teacher (namely, assistant director)." Because of this, in Japan, Clark has been referred to as "assistant director" or sometimes "vice-president" of SAC. However, in the English version of the contract, "the word ‘President’ was inserted into the text and initialed by Yoshida Kiyonari (the Japanese Minister to the United States at the time)." Regardless of title, Clark enjoyed the complete support of the Japanese government in organizing SAC and he exerted principal authority over the college while he was in Japan.
    In 1876, Clark was invited by the government of Japan to establish the Sapporo Agricultural College, now Hokkaido University.
    More Details Hide Details Following the Meiji Restoration in 1867, the new Imperial government of Japan set out upon a path of rapid modernization and recruited many European and American academics and military experts to help expedite the process. These men were referred to by the Japanese government as oyatoi gaikokujin or "hired foreigners". Seeking a model agricultural college, Mori Arinori, the Japanese Minister to the United States, asked Horace Capron, Commissioner of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, for a recommendation. Capron recommended MAC. After visiting the college, Minister Mori later recommended Clark to the Japanese government as the ideal candidate to establish SAC.
  • 1868
    Age 41
    In 1868, Clark was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
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  • 1867
    Age 40
    Clark became president of the college in 1867 and immediately appointed a faculty and completed a plan for building construction.
    More Details Hide Details Clark's decisive management enabled the college to admit its first class of 49 students. In addition to being president, he was professor of botany and horticulture. Although initially regarded as a great success, the college saw poor enrollment over the course of the 1870s. Clark was particularly disappointed with the lack of support from the farming community, writing, "To one who understands fully the greatness of the work which has been done in Amherst … the utter indifference in regard to the college manifested by most of the 75,000 farmers of Massachusetts is truly astounding." By the end of his presidency of MAC, Clark was falling under increasing criticism from the press and politicians in Boston. MAC, mounting an increasing debt, was declared a failure by some.
    In 1867, Clark became the third president of the Massachusetts Agricultural College (MAC), now the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
    More Details Hide Details He was the first to appoint a faculty and admit a class of students. Although initially successful, MAC was criticized by politicians and newspaper editors who felt it was a waste of funding in a state that was growing increasingly industrial. Farmers of western Massachusetts were slow to support the college. Despite these obstacles, Clark's success in organizing an innovative academic institution earned him international attention. Japanese officials, striving to achieve rapid modernization of that country in the wake of the Meiji Restoration, were especially intrigued by Clark's work. In 1876, the Japanese government hired Clark as a foreign advisor to establish the Sapporo Agricultural College (SAC), now Hokkaido University. During his eight months in Sapporo, Clark successfully organized SAC, had a significant impact on the scientific and economic development of the island of Hokkaido, and made a lasting imprint on Japanese culture. Clark's visage overlooks Sapporo from several statues and his parting words to his Japanese students, "Boys, be ambitious!"(「少年よ大志を抱け」) have become a nationally known motto in Japan.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1864
    Age 37
    He was a presidential elector in 1864, and a representative to the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1864–1865 and 1867.
    More Details Hide Details He was a member of a number of scientific societies.
    Elected to the Massachusetts Legislature in 1864, Clark secured a bond for the Town of Amherst enabling it to contribute $50,000 to the construction of the college buildings. This ultimately swayed the trustees to choose Amherst. MAC went through two presidents in its first four years and by 1867 still did not have a faculty, nor students, nor finished buildings.
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  • 1863
    Age 36
    Clark was one of the commission of three, appointed by Massachusetts governor John Albion Andrew in 1863, to consider the expediency of establishing a state military academy.
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    By April 1863, the numbers of the 21st Massachusetts had been so thinned by what Clark called the "cruel fate of war," that the regiment had virtually ceased to exist and Clark's command was only nominal.
    More Details Hide Details He therefore resigned his commission and returned to Massachusetts. The movement for an agricultural college in Massachusetts had begun as early as the 1830s, long before Clark became involved. The leaders of the movement included men such as Marshall Wilder, a prosperous Boston merchant and president of the Norfolk Agricultural Society, and Judge Henry Flagg French, who would become the first president of the Massachusetts Agricultural College. Their efforts met with little progress until the passage of the Morrill Land Grant Act in 1862. Sponsored by U.S. Representative Justin Smith Morrill, the act allotted federal land in the West to each state. The proceeds from the sale of this land were to support the establishment of colleges "related to agriculture and the mechanic arts." Massachusetts voted to take advantage of this federal program and established the Massachusetts Agricultural College in April 1863.
    Clark's enthusiasm for the war waned considerably after the Battle of Fredericksburg during which the Union Army suffered severe casualties in repeated charges against a heavily fortified stone wall. In a January 1863 letter to a friend, Clark wrote that, although he still felt "the principles for which we fight are right and honorable," he was "disheartened and dissatisfied" with the government and the army.
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  • 1862
    Age 35
    Clark was placed in command of the regiment in February 1862 and led it in the Battle of New Bern on March 14, 1862.
    More Details Hide Details In that action, Clark garnered a reputation for bravery when the regiment charged a Confederate battery and he straddled an enemy cannon, urging his regiment forward. The gun was the first artillery piece captured by the Union Army during that engagement. It was presented by General Burnside to Amherst College in honor of Lieutenant Frazar Stearns, son of the president of Amherst College and adjutant of the 21st Massachusetts, who was killed in the battle. The cannon was mounted inside Morgan Hall at Amherst College. After the 21st Massachusetts was transferred to Northern Virginia in July 1862, the regiment eventually became part of the Army of the Potomac and took part in several of the largest battles of the war including Second Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. The regiment suffered its worst casualties during the Battle of Chantilly on September 1, 1862. In the confusion of the battle, fought in thick woods during a thunderstorm, Clark became separated from his regiment and wandered the Virginia countryside for four days before finding the army again. While he was missing, he was incorrectly listed as killed in action and an Amherst newspaper printed his obituary under the headline, "Another Hero Gone."
    He served with the 21st Massachusetts for nearly two years, eventually commanding that regiment as lieutenant colonel in 1862, and colonel from 1862 to 1863.
    More Details Hide Details During its first months of service, the 21st Massachusetts was assigned garrison duty at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. In January 1862, the regiment was attached to the Coast Division commanded by Major General Ambrose Burnside and embarked with the division for operations in North Carolina.
  • 1861
    Age 34
    In August 1861, he received a commission of major in the 21st Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry.
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  • 1859
    Age 32
    He was a member of the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture from 1859 to 1861 and was the president of the Hampshire Board of Agriculture from 1860 to 1861, and later from 1871 to 1872.
    More Details Hide Details He used his position in these organizations to seek support for an agricultural college in Massachusetts.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1853
    Age 26
    A few months after returning home from Germany, on May 25, 1853, Clark married Harriet Keopuolani Richards Williston.
    More Details Hide Details Harriet Williston was the daughter of Clarissa and William Richards, American missionaries to the Kingdom of Hawaii. In 1838, Harriet and her brother Lyman were sent from Hawaii to be taken in by industrialist Samuel Williston so that they could be schooled at Williston Seminary in Easthampton. William Richards died in 1847 in Hawaii. His wife, Clarissa, survived him, however she remained in Hawaii for some time after her husband's death and it was agreed that Williston should adopt both Harriet and Lyman Richards. Clark's adoptive father-in-law, Samuel Williston, would prove to be an important sponsor to his career. Williston was Amherst College's primary benefactor, and a highly influential figure in western Massachusetts. William and Harriet Clark had 11 children, only 7 of whom survived to adulthood. Their eldest child and daughter, Emily Williston Clark, married F.W. Stearns, the son of prominent trader and department store owner R.H. Stearns. One of their sons, Hubert Lyman Clark, became a prominent zoologist.
    Beginning in 1853, he headed a new Division of Science for the theoretical and practical study of agriculture.
    More Details Hide Details The program was not successful, however, and was discontinued in 1857 due to poor enrollment. It became clear to Clark that a new type of institution would be necessary if agricultural education were to be taught effectively.
  • 1852
    Age 25
    He also served as professor of zoology from 1852 to 1858, and of botany from 1854 to 1858.
    More Details Hide Details Shortly after his appointment, Clark began to promote agricultural education, a subject which had attracted his attention during his time in Göttingen.
  • 1851
    Age 24
    In 1851, he departed to study chemistry and botany at Georgia Augusta University in Germany, now known as the University of Göttingen, where he earned his Ph.D. in chemistry in 1852.
    More Details Hide Details Later that year, Clark returned to Amherst and accepted a professorship in analytical and applied chemistry at Amherst College. He held that position until 1867.
  • 1848
    Age 21
    Clark then taught chemistry at Williston Seminary from 1848 to 1850.
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    He earned membership in the prestigious Phi Beta Kappa academic honor society and graduated in the class of 1848.
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  • TEENAGE
  • 1844
    Age 17
    Clark was educated at Williston Seminary (now the Williston Northampton School) in Easthampton, and entered Amherst College in 1844.
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  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1834
    Age 7
    In about 1834, his family moved to Easthampton, Massachusetts.
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  • 1826
    Born
    Born in Ashfield, Massachusetts, on July 31, 1826, William Smith Clark was the son of a country physician, Atherton Clark, and Harriet Smith Clark.
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