Zheng He
Chinese admiral
Zheng He
Zheng eunicheunich you are a eunichHe, formerly romanized as Cheng Ho, was a Muslim Hui-Chinese court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who commanded voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, Somalia and the Swahili coast, collectively referred to as the "Voyages of Zheng He" from 1405 to 1433. Zheng.
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Reach of the Sinosphere - Forbes
Google News - over 5 years
Not since the expeditions of the legendary eunuch Admiral Zheng He in the early 15th century has the Sinosphere's influence been so widely felt. Zheng He's ships extended the Middle Kingdom's influence well beyond Southeast Asia to the Indian Ocean and
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Chinese food shows global spread of Middle Kingdom - Sacramento Bee
Google News - over 5 years
The Chinese always have been great travelers – from Admiral Zheng He, whose giant fleet crossed the Indian Ocean 600 years ago, to the immigrants who've opened restaurants from the Amazon to the Arctic Circle
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Pork price controls hog limelight - The Standard
Google News - over 5 years
Next month, if the price of pork stabilizes, we may partially thank Shanghai mayor Han Zheng. He's doing his bit to hold it steady by cracking down on speculation, vowing to maintain consistent supply and boosting breeding facilities
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China-ASEAN free trade area - Manila Bulletin
Google News - over 5 years
Part of history during that period were the voyages, in the 15th century, of the renowned Chinese explorer, “Admiral” Zheng He. In splendid ships bigger than no other power had built, he undertook a series of naval expeditions that touched at major
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Ocean of dreams - China Daily
Google News - over 5 years
Although the nation, which was home to Zheng He, arguably the most famous navigator in ancient history, boasts a sprawling coastline of 18000 km, the Chinese people have often lived off the land. In fact, the reliance on land reached a crescendo during
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Makeover for chinese nets - IBNLive.com
Google News - over 5 years
According to legend, this unusual fishing technique was brought to Kochi from the court of Chinese emperor Kublai Khan by a Chinese explorer, Zheng He. These structures have been in operation from the mid-fifteenth century
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Sino-Lanka relations will strengthen - Nation on Sunday
Google News - over 5 years
Admiral Zheng He, legendary Chinese navigator in six of his voyages, visited Sri Lanka. After the 15th century China-Sri Lanka ties did not take place on a regular basis. But yet there were contacts between the two countries at a low intensity and
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China heightens ocean awareness - People's Daily Online
Google News - over 5 years
Admittedly, Zheng He, a senior general and eunuch in the Ming Dynasty carried out several great naval expeditions with some 120000 people, which were the most glorious sea-related events in Chinese history. However, "China has never carried out as
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China and Spread of Islam in Indonesia - VIVAnews.com
Google News - over 5 years
The voyage of Admiral Zheng He to Indonesia in the 15th century was also of the cause. Zheng He was the first Chinese Muslim leader who explore Southeast Asia. He along with his men, who were also Muslim, sought to attain his goals in strengthening
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Chinese Ships Leave North Korea After Anniversary Visit - Voice of America (blog)
Google News - over 5 years
The training ship Zheng He and the frigate Luoyang set sail Monday from the port of Wonsan where they had docked during the rare goodwill visit. While in North Korea, the Chinese delegation, led by the commander of China's northern fleet, Vice Admiral
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5 things to do today - TimeOutDubai.com
Google News - over 5 years
Last-chance lobster: Take advantage of this special lobster promotion at Zheng He's while you still can – lobsters will be prepared by executive chef Tan, using famous XO chilli sauce, black bean sauce, black pepper sauce and garnished with ginger and
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Taiwan Students Need to Step Out of Comfort Zone: Academic - Focus Taiwan News Channel
Google News - over 5 years
Taking the famed 15th-century Chinese explorer Zheng He for example -- he led 240 ships to the West in 1405 but never crossed the Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean or the Atlantic, even though the number of his ships was far greater than the 3 ships led by
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Voyage de la nuit - TODAYonline
Google News - over 5 years
Cameo appearances by Marco Polo, Zheng He and Ali Baba. Floating jellyfish and balloons, cars pulsating with light, and a building literally coming to life through the sound of your voice. All these and more will be featured at Voyage Night Festival
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Chinese fleet sails for visit to Russia, DPRK - China Daily
Google News - over 5 years
Women navy trainees are seen on board of Zheng He training ship in a harbor in Dalian, northeast China's Liaoning Province, July 25, 2011. A fleet formed by China's naval Zheng He training ship and Luoyang missile frigate set sail from Dalian on Monday
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The Enduring Message of Hangzhou - TIME
Google News - over 5 years
Some 60 years after Ibn Battuta's visit, the culture that had built the wonders of Hangzhou sponsored expeditions of its own: seven epic voyages, led by the great admiral Zheng He, that ranged from the Pacific to the Swahili coast of Africa
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NASA: From Kennedy to the Ming Dynasty - E-Commerce Times
Google News - over 5 years
The final voyage of NASA's space shuttle program represents the biggest collapse of a national exploration program since China turned inward after the remarkable 15th century voyages of Chinese Admiral Zheng He. The space shuttle, known formally as the
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China needs aircraft carriers - China Daily
Google News - over 5 years
Instead, the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) government sent Zheng He on seven naval expeditions from 1405 to 1433 to places such as Arabia, Brunei, East Africa, India, the Malay Archipelago and Thailand to boost friendly exchanges. Zheng He's truly friendly
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Charles Nevin: Mr Osborne would make a fine statue - The Independent
Google News - over 5 years
I mention it because today, 606 years and 235 years ago respectively, both the great Chinese admiral, Zheng He, and the heroic British navigator, Captain James Cook, set out on epic journeys of world discovery. By a remarkable coincidence,
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Forum claims existence of Jew Street in Kozhikode - The Hindu
Google News - over 5 years
Chinese Admiral Zheng He made his last voyage to Kozhikode in 1433 (he died during this voyage). Abdul Razzak, a merchant traveller who visited Kozhikode nine years later, noted that the trade had already shifted from the east to west
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Zheng He
    LATE_ADULTHOOD
  • 1435
    Age 64
    Died in 1435.
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    Another belief is that Zheng He continued to serve as the defender of Nanjing, dying in 1435.
    More Details Hide Details A tomb was built for Zheng He at the southern slope of Cattle Head Hill, Nanjing. The original tomb was a horseshoe-shaped grave. It is a cenotaph believed to be containing his clothes and headgear. In 1985, the tomb was rebuilt following a Muslim style. He adopted the eldest son of his elder brother, who was awarded a hereditary officer rank in the imperial guard. The Yuan dynasty and expanding Sino-Arab trade during the 14th century had gradually expanded Chinese knowledge of the world: "universal" maps previously only displaying China and its surrounding seas began to expand further and further into the southwest with much more accurate depictions of the extent of Arabia and Africa. Between 1405 and 1433, the Ming government sponsored seven naval expeditions. The Yongle Emperor - disregarding the Hongwu Emperor's expressed wishes - designed them to establish a Chinese presence and impose imperial control over the Indian Ocean trade, impress foreign peoples in the Indian Ocean basin, and extend the empire's tributary system. It has also been inferred from passages in the History of Ming that the initial voyages were launched as part of the emperor's attempt to capture his escaped predecessor, which would have made the first voyage the "largest-scale manhunt on water in the history of China".
  • 1433
    Age 62
    One theory is that Admiral Zheng He died in 1433.
    More Details Hide Details It may have happened during or shortly after the seventh voyage.
  • 1431
    Age 60
    In 1431, Zheng He was bestowed with the title "Sanbao Taijian", using his informal name Sanbao and characters meaning "Three Treasures".
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  • FIFTIES
  • 1430
    Age 59
    In 1430, the new Xuande Emperor appointed Zheng He to command over a seventh and final expedition into the "Western Ocean" (Indian Ocean).
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  • 1426
    Age 55
    On 15 May 1426, the Xuande Emperor ordered the Directorate of Ceremonial to send a letter to Zheng He to reprimand him for a transgression.
    More Details Hide Details Earlier, an official petitioned the emperor to reward workmen who had built temples in Nanjing. The Xuande Emperor responded negatively to the official for placing the costs to the court instead of the monks themselves, but he realized that Zheng He and his associates had instigated the official. Dreyer (2007) noted that the nature of the emperor's words indicated that Zheng He's behaviour in this situation was the last straw, but that there's too little information about what had transpired beforehand. Nevertheless, the Xuande Emperor would eventually come to trust Zheng He.
  • 1424
    Age 53
    The Taizong Shilu 27 February 1424 entry reports that Shi Jisun had sent Qiu Yancheng as envoy to petition the approval of the succession from his father Shi Jinqing, who was the Pacification Commissioner of Palembang, and was given permission from the Yongle Emperor.
    More Details Hide Details On 7 September 1424, Zhu Gaozhi had inherited the throne as the Hongxi Emperor after the death of the Yongle Emperor on 12 August 1424. When Zheng He returned from Palembang, he found that the Yongle Emperor had died during his absence. After the ascension of Zhu Di's son as the Hongxi Emperor, the ocean voyages were discontinued and Zheng He was instead appointed as Defender of Nanjing, the empire's southern capital. In that post, he was largely responsible for the completion of the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, an enormous pagoda still described as a wonder of the world as late as the 19th century.
    In 1424, Admiral Zheng He traveled to Palembang to confer an official seal and letter of appointment upon Shi Jisun, who was placed in the office of Pacification Commissioner.
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  • THIRTIES
  • 1404
    Age 33
    During the New Year's day on 11 February 1404, the Yongle Emperor conferred the surname "Zheng" to him (his original name was still Ma He), because he had distinguished himself defending the city reservoir Zhenglunba against imperial forces in the Siege of Beiping of 1399, Another reason was that the eunuch commander also distinguished himself during the 1402 campaign to capture the capital Nanjing.
    More Details Hide Details It is believed that his choice to confer the surname "Zheng" was because the eunuch's horse had been killed during the battle at Zhenglunba near Beiping at the onset of his rebellion. He was initially called Ma Sanbao: either (s, lit. "Three Gifts") or (lit. "Three Protections", both pronounced sān bǎo). In the new administration, Zheng He served in the highest posts, as Grand Director and later as Chief Envoy (zhèngshǐ) during his sea voyages. Over the next three decades he conducted seven of these voyages on behalf of the emperor, trading and collecting tribute in the eastern Pacific and Indian Oceans.
  • 1402
    Age 31
    In January 1402, Zhu Di began with his military campaign to capture the imperial capital Nanjing.
    More Details Hide Details Zheng He would be one of his commanders during this campaign. In 1402, Zhu Di's armies defeated the imperial forces and marched into Nanjing on 13 July 1402. Zhu Di accepted the elevation to emperor four days later. After ascending the throne as the Yongle Emperor, he promoted Zheng He as the Grand Director (Taijian) of the Directorate of Palace Servants.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1399
    Age 28
    In 1399, Zheng He successfully defended Beiping's city reservoir Zhenglunba against the imperial armies.
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    In August 1399, Zhu Di openly rebelled against his nephew.
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  • 1398
    Age 27
    In 1398, he issued a policy known as xiaofan, "reducing the feudatories", which entails eliminating all the princes by stripping their power and military forces.
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  • TEENAGE
  • 1390
    Age 19
    On 2 March 1390, Zheng He accompanied Zhu Di when he commanded his first expedition, which was a great victory as the Mongol commander Naghachu surrendered as soon as he realized he had fallen for a deception.
    More Details Hide Details Eventually, he would gain the confidence and trust of the prince. Zheng He was also known as "Sanbao" during the time of service in the household of the Prince of Yan. This name was a reference to the Three Jewels (triratna) in Buddhism. He received a proper education while at Beiping, which he would not have had if he had been placed in the imperial capital Nanjing as the Hongwu Emperor did not trust eunuchs and believed that it was better to keep them illiterate. Meanwhile, the Hongwu Emperor exterminated many of the original Ming leadership and gave his enfeoffed sons more military authority, especially those in the north like the Prince of Yan. Zheng He's appearance as an adult was recorded: he was seven chi tall, had a waist that was five chi in circumference, cheeks and a forehead that were high, a small nose, glaring eyes, teeth that were white and well-shaped as shells, and a voice that was as loud as a bell. It is also recorded that he had great knowledge about warfare and was well-accustomed to battle.
  • 1385
    Age 14
    However, Levathes (1996) has stated that he was castrated in 1385.
    More Details Hide Details He was sent to serve in the household of Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan, who later became the Yongle Emperor. He was 10 years old when he entered into the service of the Prince of Yan. Zhu Di was eleven years older than Zheng He. Since 1380, the prince had been governing Beiping (the future Beijing), which was located near the northern frontier where the hostile Mongol tribes were situated. Zheng He would spend his early life as a soldier on the northern frontier. He often participated in Zhu Di's military campaigns against the Mongols.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1381
    Age 10
    Zheng He was captured by the Ming armies at Yunnan in 1381.
    More Details Hide Details General Fu Youde saw Zheng He on a road and approached him in order to inquire about the location of the Mongol pretender. Zheng He responded defiantly by saying that the Mongol pretender had jumped into a lake. Afterwards, the general took him prisoner. The young Zheng He was soon castrated before being placed in servitude of the Prince of Yan.
    In 1381, Ma Hajji (Zheng He's father) died in the fighting between the Ming armies and Mongol forces.
    More Details Hide Details Dreyer (2007) states that Zheng He's father died at age 39 while resisting the Ming conquest. Levathes (1996) states Zheng He's father died at age 37, but it is unclear if he was helping the Mongol army or just caught in the onslaught of battle. Wenming, the oldest son, buried their father outside of Kunming. In his capacity as Admiral, Zheng He had an epitaph engraved in honor of his father, composed by the Minister of Rites Li Zhigang on the Duanwu Festival of the 3rd year in the Yongle era (1 June 1405).
  • 1371
    Age 0
    Born in 1371.
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