Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
President of Pakistan
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979. His elder daughter, Benazir Bhutto, later also served as Prime Minister, while his son Murtaza Bhutto served as member of Parliament of Pakistan.
Biography
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's personal information overview.
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News
News abour Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from around the web
Fighting a losing battle? - The Express Tribune
Google News - over 5 years
Resultantly, Zulfikar Bhutto's slogan of a 'thousand years of war' with India strengthened the age-old narrative. Similarly, it is false to argue that Musharraf encouraged liberalism through his policies as he was one big supporter of militancy
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'Punjab's resources, population to be higher despite new provinces' - The News International
Google News - over 5 years
Prof Amjad Saeed said that Zulfikar Bhutto had finished the tussle among the provinces by creating the Senate and giving proper representation to each province. He said the PPP government did not protect the basic rights provided by the Constitution
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COMMENT: Ideological distortions —Yasser Latif Hamdani - Pakistan Daily Times
Google News - over 5 years
Zulfikar Bhutto's repeated attempts to convince the Americans that he was a better American ally than the Shah of Iran, for example, is never mentioned. It is forgotten that Bhutto allowed the House of Saud to directly influence Pakistan's
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The Persian mistress at the breakfast table: Tales of the Bhutto childhood - Foreign Policy
Google News - over 5 years
One quite detailed account of Bhutto's family life with his mistress is found in Zulfikar Bhutto of Pakistan : His Life and Times Oxford University Press (1993) By STANLEY A. WOLPERT., Professor Emeritus University of Pennsylvania
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An unlikely alliance? - The Express Tribune
Google News - over 5 years
They should keep the example of the Pakistan National Alliance in mind when opposition parties banded together and took to the streets to remove Zulfikar Bhutto from power. They were able to achieve that aim but only by allowing the army to take over
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MQM still part of Govt: Gilani - Pakistan Observer
Google News - over 5 years
On the occasion of 5th of July, the Prime Minister strongly condemned what happed with an elected leader Shaheed Zulfikar Bhutto who gave a unanimous 1973 constitution, made Pakistan and nuclear state and gave many mega projects to the country
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Salman Taseer: A Brilliant Romantic – OpEd - Eurasia Review
Google News - over 5 years
The party was founded by former Pakistan premier Zulfikar Bhutto (later to be found guilty of murder) more than four decades ago and in whose memory Taseer would say he was beholden. It has a reputation tainted with corruption- one to which Taseers
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ANALYSIS: Myths versus realities —Sheikh Asad Rahman - Pakistan Daily Times
Google News - over 5 years
Ayub replied that the foreign ministry (Zulfikar Bhutto) had assured him that the Indians would not. On September 3, Asghar Khan visited the Ops room at Air Headquarters and found officers running this way and that and knew that the war was about to
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Not exactly a 'historic' budget, dear minister - The Express Tribune
Google News - over 5 years
Former prime ministers Zulfikar Bhutto and Benazir Bhutto must be turning in their graves, seeing the abuse of their names and photographs on a crass campaign trying to project another 'business-as-usual budget' as a good budget
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COMMENT: Many questions, no answers —Rakesh Mani - Pakistan Daily Times
Google News - over 5 years
The use of religion as a political tool began under Zulfikar Bhutto and was taken to an extreme by Ziaul Haq, who enshrined it in the constitution. Decades of accumulated religious fanaticism now threaten to rip Pakistan apart
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Sadruddin Hashwani: Working around the globe, living in the Arab world, and ... - Al-Arabiya
Google News - over 5 years
One example of that is after Prime Minister Zulfikar Bhutto nationalized industries in the 1970s and Mr. Hashwani started investing in those businesses not yet nationalized, like textile, minerals and real estate. “People thought I was mad [at that
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Standing at the crossroads again - The Express Tribune
Google News - over 5 years
Under Zulfikar Bhutto, the country had gone entirely in the wrong direction in terms of economic management. The 9/11 terrorist attack on the US brought Pakistan to another crossroads. General Pervez Musharraf, now the country's president,
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PPP ministers, MPAs react against LHC's decision - Frontier Post
Google News - almost 6 years
Minister Katchi Abadi Rafique Engineer pointed out that decision of LHC has come at a time when the Supreme Court was conducting a hearing on Shaheed Zulfikar Bhutto's case. Most of the MPAs wore Sindhi cap and Ajrak and said they want to record
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China came close to US because of Bhutto's efforts: CM - Daily Times
Google News - almost 6 years
He also said due to concerted efforts of Zulfikar Bhutto, China came close to US, so it can rightly be claimed that with Bhutto's wisdom the relations between Pakistan and China got cemented. He added US had approached Bhutto to play his part in
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ZAB's case 'peculiar' to reopen, says Awan - Pakistan Daily Mail
Google News - almost 6 years
Earlier an 11-member Supreme Court bench, headed by Chief Justice of Pakistan (CJP) Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry heard the Zulfikar Bhutto reference case. During the hearing, the court said that in other countries such cases were reopened after
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De kool en de geit van Pakistan - De Standaard
Google News - almost 6 years
Eerste minister Zulfikar Bhutto, de vader van Benazir, probeerde, tegen Amerikaanse belangen in, een Pakistaanse kernbom te laten ontwikkelen. Toen de streng islamitische generaal Zia-ul-Haq Zulfikar afzette, en hem liet vermoorden (na een
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PAKISTAN/USA, UN DIFFICILE DOPO OSAMA 4/5/11 - Lettera 22
Google News - almost 6 years
... è stato uno dei grandi rovelli (e drammi) di ogni presidente, dal pragmatico fondatore del Paese dei puri, Ali Jinnah, al socialdemocratico Zulfikar Bhutto, al fervido islamista Zia Ul-Haq per finire col fragile Asif Zardari dei giorni nostri
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Trajectories of Pakistan and Bangladesh - The Express Tribune
Google News - almost 6 years
Then, like Zulfikar Bhutto's PPP, Mujib's Awami League entrenched itself in the political system as a 'liberal' option that didn't hate India too much; General Ziaur Rahman's legacy was Bangladesh National Party (BNP), the right-wing lookalike of
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
    FIFTIES
  • 1979
    Age 51
    Even though Henry Kissinger developed differences with Bhutto, in his 1979 memoir White House Years he conceded that Bhutto was "brilliant, charming, of global stature in his perception, a man of extraordinary abilities, capable of drawing close to any country that served Pakistan`s national interests".
    More Details Hide Details While, Bhutto's former Law Minister Mairaj Muhammad Khan described Bhutto as "a great man but cruel". His family remained active and influential in politics, with first his wife and then his daughter becoming leader of the PPP political party. His eldest daughter, Benazir Bhutto, was twice Prime minister of Pakistan, and was assassinated on 27 December 2007, while campaigning for 2008 elections. While his son, Murtaza Bhutto, served as the Member Parliament of Pakistan, and was also assassinated in a controversial police encounter. Roedad Khan, former statesman who served under Bhutto, further wrote in his book, "Pakistan—A dream gone sour", that "after 1971, Bhutto started extremely well, bringing the isolated, angered, apprehended, and dismembered nation back into her feet and gave the respectable place in the world, in a shortest period... With a gift of giving the nation a parliamentary system and furthermore the ambitious successful development of atomic bomb programme in a record time, are his greatest achievements in his life, for Pakistan and her people, but sadly deteriorated at the end". Bhutto remains highly influential in country's public, scientific, and political circles; his name yet continues to resonate in Pakistan’s collective memory.
    On 4 April 1979, the day Bhutto was executed, The New York Times published its report after following the entire chronological events surrounding Bhutto's trial which stated in part "The way they did it, (Bhutto).. is going to grow into a legend that will some day backfire."
    More Details Hide Details Many political analysts and scientists widely suspected that the riots and coup against Bhutto were orchestrated with the help of Central Intelligence Agency and the United States Government because of United States fears of Bhutto's socialist policies being seen as sympathetic to the Soviet Union, and said policies providing an opportunity to the Soviet Union to get involved in Pakistani politics. A former U.S. attorney general and human rights activist, Ramsey Clark, is quoted in the New York Times as saying: "I do not believe in conspiracy theories in general, but the similarities in the staging of riots in Chile (where the CIA allegedly helped overthrow President Salvadore Allande) and in Pakistan are just too close. Bhutto was removed from power in Pakistan by force on 5 July, after the usual party on the 4th at the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad, with U.S. approval, if not more, by General Zia-ul-Haq. Bhutto was falsely accused and brutalized for months during proceedings that corrupted the Judiciary of Pakistan before being murdered, then hanged. As Americans, we must ask ourselves this: Is it possible that a rational military leader under the circumstances in Pakistan could have overthrown a constitutional government, without at least the tacit approval of the United States?".
    But Bhutto's policy largely benefited the poor and working class when the level of absolute poverty was sharply reduced, with the percentage of the population estimated to be living in absolute poverty falling from 46.50% by the end of 1979–80, under the General Zia-ul-Haq's military rule, to 30.78%.
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    He was also the founder of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979.
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  • 1978
    Age 50
    On 18 December 1978, Bhutto made his appearance in public before a packed courtroom in Rawalpindi.
    More Details Hide Details By this time he had been on death row for 9 months and had gone without fresh water for the previous 25 days. He addressed the court for four days, speaking without notes. The appeal was completed on 23 December 1978. On 6 February 1979, the Supreme Court issued a guilty verdict, a decision reached by a bare 4-to-3 majority. The Bhutto family had seven days in which to appeal. The court granted a stay of execution while it studied the petition. By 24 February 1979 when the next court hearing began, appeals for clemency arrived from many heads of state. Zia said that the appeals amounted to "trade union activity" among politicians. On 24 March 1979 the Supreme Court dismissed the appeal. Zia upheld the death sentence.
    On 12 March 1978, Bhutto's former Legal Minister, A.H. Per-Zadah petitioned the Supreme Court for the release of Bhutto's Science Adviser, Mubashir Hassan, and to review Bhutto's death sentence based on the split decision.
    More Details Hide Details The Supreme Court denied Hassan's release because he was held by Military Police, but the court agreed to hear the arguments. After 12 days of proceedings, the Supreme Court concluded that the President of Pakistan can change a death sentence into life imprisonment. Per-Zadah filed an application to then-Chief Martial Law Administrator. However, General Zia-ul-Haq did not act immediately and claimed that the application had gone missing. Emotionally shattered, Pirzada informed Bhutto about the development and General Zia-ul-Haq's intention. Therefore, Bhutto did not seek an appeal. While he was transferred to a cell in Rawalpindi central jail, his family appealed on his behalf, and a hearing before the Supreme Court commenced in May. Bhutto was given one week to prepare. Bhutto issued a thorough rejoinder to the charges, although Zia blocked its publication. Chief Justice S. Anwarul Haq adjourned the court until the end of July 1978, supposedly because five of the nine appeal court judges were willing to overrule the Lahore verdict. One of the pro-Bhutto judges was due to retire in July.
    On 18 March 1978, Bhutto was declared not guilty of murder, but was sentenced to death.
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    When Bhutto began his testimony on 25 January 1978, Chief Justice Maulvi Mushtaq closed the courtroom to all observers.
    More Details Hide Details Bhutto responded by refusing to say any more. Bhutto demanded a retrial, accusing the Chief Justice of bias, after Mushtaq allegedly insulted Bhutto's home province. The court refused his demand.
  • FORTIES
  • 1977
    Age 49
    Observers noted that when Bhutto was removed from power in July 1977, thousands of Pakistanis cheered and were delighted.
    More Details Hide Details On 5 July 1977 the military, led by General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, staged a coup. Zia relieved prime minister Bhutto of power, holding him in detention for a month. Zia pledged that new elections would be held in 90 days. He kept postponing the elections and publicly retorted during successive press conferences that if the elections were held in the presence of Bhutto his party would not return to power again. Upon his release, Bhutto traveled the country amid adulatory crowds of PPP supporters. He used to take the train traveling from the south to the north and on the way would address public meetings at different stations. Several of these trains were late, some by days, in reaching their respective destinations and as a result Bhutto was banned from traveling by train. The last visit he made to the city of Multan in the province of Punjab marked the turning point in Bhutto's political career and ultimately, his life. In spite of the administration's efforts to block the gathering, the crowd was so large that it became disorderly, providing an opportunity for the administration to declare that Bhutto, along with Dr. Hassan, had been taken into custody because the people were against him and it had become necessary to protect him from the masses for his own safety.
    However, on 5 July 1977 Bhutto and members of his cabinet were arrested by troops under the order of General Zia.
    More Details Hide Details It is generally believed that the coup took place on the pretext of unrest despite Bhutto having reached an agreement with the opposition. Bhutto had good intelligence within the Army, and officers such as Major-General Tajamül Hussain Malik were loyal to him until the end. However, General Zia-ul-Haq ordered a training programme with the officers from Special Air Service (SAS). General Zia-ul-Haq ordered many of Bhutto's loyal officers to attend the first course. However, classes for senior officers were delayed until the midnight. None of the officers were allowed to leave until late in the evening before the coup. During this time, arrangements for the coup was made. General Zia announced that martial law had been imposed, the constitution suspended and all assemblies dissolved and promised elections within ninety days. Zia also ordered the arrest of senior PPP and PNA leaders but promised elections in October. Bhutto was released on 29 July and was received by a large crowd of supporters in his hometown of Larkana. He immediately began touring across Pakistan, delivering speeches to very large crowds and planning his political comeback. Bhutto was arrested again on 3 September before being released on bail on 13 September. Fearing yet another arrest, Bhutto named his wife, Nusrat, president of the Pakistan People's Party. Bhutto was imprisoned on 16 September and a large number of PPP leaders, notably Dr. Mubashir Hassan and activists were arrested and disqualified from contesting the elections.
    On 3 July 1977, then-Major-General K.M. Arif secretly met Bhutto, revealing that the planning of a coup had been taking place in the General Combatant Headquarters (GHQ).
    More Details Hide Details At this secret meeting, General Arif encouraged Bhutto to "rush the negotiation with the PNA, before its too late". Intensifying political and civil disorder prompted Bhutto to hold talks with PNA leaders, which culminated in an agreement for the dissolution of the assemblies and fresh elections under a government of national unity.
    On 5 July 1977, chief of army staff General Zia-ul-Haq deposed Bhutto in a bloodless coup, and had the former prime minister controversially tried and executed by the Supreme Court in 1979 for authorising the murder of a political opponent, Ahmad Raza Khan Kasuri.
    More Details Hide Details While Bhutto's legacy is contentious, his party, the PPP, remains one of the largest in Pakistan and his daughter Benazir Bhutto emerged as prime minister after winning the Pakistani General elections of 1988 following Zia's death. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto belonged to a Muslim Rajput family. He was born in Sindh to Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto and Khursheed Begum (née Lakhi Bai) near Larkana. Zulfikar was their third child—their first one, Sikandar Ali, had died from pneumonia at age seven in 1914, and the second, Imdad Ali, died of cirrhosis at age 39 in 1953. His father was the dewan of the princely state of Junagadh, and enjoyed an influential relationship with the officials of the British Raj. As a young boy, Bhutto moved to Worli Seaface in Bombay to study at the Cathedral and John Connon School. He then also became an activist in the Pakistan Movement.
    The PPP won the 1977 parliamentary elections, However, a conservative alliance alleged widespread rigging and civil disorder escalated across Pakistan.
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    On 8 January 1977, the opposition organized into the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA)., a nine-party coalition against the government of Bhutto and his allies.
    More Details Hide Details Bhutto called fresh elections, but the PNA did not obtain a clear majority. The PNA faced defeat but did not accept the results, accusing their opponents of rigging the election. The dissidents ultimately claimed that 40 seats in the national assembly were rigged, and boycotted the provincial elections. In the face of the resulting low voter turnout, the PNA declared the newly elected Bhutto government as illegitimate. Hard-line Islamist leaders such as Maulana Maududi called for the overthrow of Bhutto's regime. Mubashir Hassan, Science Advisor of Bhutto, feared a possible coup against Bhutto. Hassan entered the dispute and made an unsuccessful attempt to reach an agreement with PNA. Most Islamists refused to meet with Hassan as they saw him as the architect of Bhutto's success. The same year, an intensive crackdown was initiated on the Pakistan Muslim League, a conservative front. The People's National Party's President and former Leader of the Opposition Khan Vali Khan saw Bhutto's actions as his last stand against PNA, the Armed Forces and Bhutto, including his colleagues, were isolated. In an open public seminar, Vali Khan quoted that "There is one possible grave for two people... let us see who gets in first". The Federal Security Force allegedly either arrested or extrajudicially killed members of the Muslim League. Following this, amid protest and civil distress felt in Lahore, and People's Party lost the administrative control over the city.
  • 1976
    Age 48
    During the course of 1976 presidential election, Carter was elected as U.S. President, and his very inaugural speech Carter announced the determination to seek the ban of nuclear weapons.
    More Details Hide Details With Carter's election, Bhutto lost all links to United States administration he had through President Nixon. Bhutto had to face the embargo and pressure from the American President who was totally against the political objectives which Bhutto had set forth for his upcoming future plans. Carter indirectly announced his opposition to Bhutto, his ambition and the elections.
  • 1974
    Age 46
    In 1974, Bhutto's trusted Science Advisor Abdus Salam also left Pakistan when Parliament declared Ahmadiyyah Muslims as non-Muslims.
    More Details Hide Details With Salam's departure, the research on nuclear weapons slowed down the progress as Dr. Mubashir Hassan, now Bhutto's appointed Science Advisor, would focus on politics more than the science research. Many civil bureaucrats and military officers loyal to Bhutto were replaced by new faces. Bhutto found himself with new advisers and collaborators. Dissidence also increased within the PPP and the murder of dissident leader Ahmad Raza Casuri's father led to public outrage and intra-party hostility as Bhutto was accused of masterminding the crime. Powerful PPP leaders such as Ghulam Mustafa Khar, former Governor of Punjab, openly condemned Bhutto and called for protests against his regime. The political crisis in the North-West Frontier Province and Balochistan intensified as civil liberties remained suspended and an estimated 100,000 troops deployed there were accused of human rights abuses and killing large numbers of civilians.
    Between the 1974 and 1976, many of Bhutto's original members had left Bhutto due to political differences or natural death causes.
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    By the end of 1974, Bhutto gave final authorisation of covert operation to train Afghan mujaheddin to take on Daoud Khan's government.
    More Details Hide Details This operation was an ultimate success. By 1976 Daud had become concerned about his country over dependence on the Soviet Union and the rising insurgency, thereon on 7 June 1976, Bhutto paid a three-day state visit to Afghanistan, followed by five-day visit of Daud Khan to Pakistan on August's last week of 1976. On 2 March 1977, an agreement on the resumption of air communications between Afghanistan and Pakistan was reached, as relations continue to improve. Bhutto and Daud made an exchange of official visit to force Afghanistan to accept the Durand Line as the permanent border. However, these development were interrupted as Bhutto was removed and Daud Khan was also overthrown in a military coup shortly after. Western experts viewed Bhutto's policy as "astute policy" in regards to the border question clearly increased pressure of the Afghanistan and very likely helped stimulate Afghan governments move towards accommodation. Whilst the Deputy Afghan Foreign Minister Abdul Samad Ghaus also admitted before the compromise Afghanistan had been heavily involved inside Pakistan.
    In 1974, Bhutto authorised a covert operation in Kabul and the Pakistan Air Force and the members of AI and the ISI successfully extradited Burhanuddin Rabbani, Jan Mohammad Khan, Gulbadin Hekmatyar, and Ahmad Shah Massoud to Peshawar, amid fear that Rabbani may be assassinated.
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    Therefore, Bhutto's government decided to retaliate, and Bhutto launched a covert counter-operation in 1974 under the command of Major-General Naseerullah Babar, who was then Director-General of the M.I. Directorate-General for Western Fronts (DGWI).
    More Details Hide Details According to General Baber, it was an excellent idea and it had hard-hitting impact on Afghanistan. The aim of this operation was to arm the Islamic fundamentalists and to instigate an attack in different parts of Afghanistan.
    In 1974, Afghanistan began covert involvement in Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa which became increasingly disturbing for Bhutto's government.
    More Details Hide Details Afghan President Dawood Khan's controversial Pashtunisation policies resulted in Pakistan with gruesome violence and civil disturbances. The ISI quickly pointed out that President Daud was providing safe havens and training camps to anti-Pakistan militants and its intelligence agency had been a main arm of supporting the actions inside Pakistan, including providing support to Baloch separatists.
    In 1974, Bhutto, as Prime minister, visited Soviet Union.
    More Details Hide Details Prime Minister Bhutto deliberately undertook to improve relations with the Soviet Union and the Communist bloc. Bhutto sought to developed and alleviated the Soviet-Pak Relations, with Soviet Union established Pakistan Steel Mills in 1972. The foundation stone for this gigantic project was laid on 30 December 1973 by Bhutto. Facing inexperience for the erection work of the integrated steel mill, Bhutto requested Soviet Union to send its experts. Soviet Union sends dozens of advisors and experts, under Russian scientist Mikhail Koltokof, who supervised the construction of this integrated Steel Mills, with a number of industrial and consortium companies financing this mega-project. For the first time in history of the country, the relationships with United States were at low point and severed as United States was opposing Pakistan's nuclear detterrence programme. Although, Richard Nixon enjoyed firmly strong relations with Bhutto and was a close friend of Bhutto, the graph of relation significantly went down under the Presidency of Jimmy Carter. Carter tightened the embargo placed on Pakistan and placed a pressure through the United States Ambassador to Pakistan, Brigadier-General Henry Byroade. The socialist orientation, and Bhutto's proposed left-wing theories, had badly upset the United States, further clinging the bell tolls in the United States as fearing Pakistan's loss as an ally in the Cold war. The leftists and Bhutto's policy towards Soviet Union was seen sympathetic and had built a bridge for Soviet Union to have gain access in Pakistan's warm water ports, that something both United States and Soviet Union had lacked.
    In 1974, pressured by other Muslim nations, Pakistan eventually recognised Bangladesh as Mujib stated he would only go to the OIC conference in Lahore if Pakistan recognised Bangladesh.
    More Details Hide Details Pakistan established full diplomatic relations with Bangladesh on 18 January 1976 and relations improved in the following decades. Bhutto aided the Syrian and Egyptian Air Force by sending the PAF and Navy's top fighter pilots where they flew combat missions against Israel. However, Iraq was not benefited with Bhutto policies. In spite of troubled relations with Israel, Bhutto had made it clear to Israel that his policy against Israel is not based on "antisemitism", but the issue of independent Palestine that prompted Pakistan to oppose Israel. In early 1977, Bhutto decided to use ISI to provide the credible intelligence on Iraqi nuclear program that Pakistan and the ISI had secretly gained. The government passed intel that identified Iraqi nuclear program and the Osirak Nuclear Reactor at Osirak to Israel's Mossad. Helping Israel to infiltrate Iraqi nuclear program was also continued by General Zia-ul-Haq as their policy to teach Iraq and Saddam Hussein a lesson for supporting the Baloch liberation fronts and movements.
    In 1974, Bhutto and his Foreign minister Aziz Ahmed brought a U.N. resolution, recommending and calling for the establishment of nuclear-weapon free zone in South Asia, whilst he and Aziz Ahmed aggressively attacked the Indian nuclear programme.
    More Details Hide Details While Abdul Qadeer Khan was tasked with bringing the gas-centrifuge technology through the means of atomic proliferation, the goal of the resolution was achieved when Bhutto put India on the defensive position and promoted Pakistan as a non-proliferationist. Since the 1960s, Bhutto had been an anti-SEATO and preferred a non-aligned policy. Soon after assuming the office, Bhutto took a lengthy foreign trip to South East Asia, seeking closer and tighter relations with Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Burma, and North Korea. His policy largely followed a tight and closer relations with China, normalised relationships with Soviet Union, built an Islamic bloc, and advocated a creation of new economical alliance largely benefiting the third and second world countries. All of these initiations and implications had disastrous effects on Japan, prompting Japan to oppose Bhutto, although Bhutto was a great admirer of Japan even though Japan was not a constituent part of Bhutto's foreign policy. In the 1970s, Japan made several attempts to get close to Bhutto, sending its military officials, scientists, and parliamentary delegations to Pakistan. Hence Japan went far by condemning India for carrying out a nuclear test, Smiling Buddha, in 1974, and publicly supported Pakistan's non-nuclear weapon policy and pledged to build several new nuclear power plants. In 1970, Bhutto advised Japan not to be party of NPT, but Japan signed it but later regretted for not being properly progressed.
    In 1974, Bhutto hosted the second Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) in 1974 where he delegated and invited leaders from the Muslim world to Lahore, Punjab Province of Pakistan.
    More Details Hide Details Bhutto was a strong advocate of Afro-Asian Solidarity and had cemented ties with Afro-Asian and Islamic countries and by 1976 had emerged as the Leader of the Third World. Bhutto sought a peace agreement—Simla Agreement—with Indira Gandhi, Premier of India, and brought back 93,000 P.O.Ws to Pakistan and secured held by India with out compromising on Kashmir stance or recognising Bangladesh which were the key Indian demands. Negotiating with a power that has dismembered the country was an open-challenge to Bhutto who smoothly convinced India to return the territory and the POWs back to Pakistan. Before this conference, Bhutto and his colleagues did the comprehensive homework as Bhutto had realised that Arabs have still not succeeded in regaining territory lost in the 1967 war with Israel. Therefore, capturing of land does not cry out for international attention the same way as the prisoners do. According to Benazir Bhutto, Bhutto demanded the control of the territory in the first stage of the Agreement which surprised and shocked the Indian delegation. In Bhutto's point of view, the POW problem was more of a humanitarian problem that could be tackled at any time, but the territorial problem was something that could be integrated in India as time elapses. Indian Premier Gandhi was stunned and astonished at Bhutto's demand and reacted immediately by refusing Bhutto's demand. However, Bhutto calmed her and negotiated with economic packages dealt with Gandhi.
  • 1973
    Age 45
    Bhutto was sworn in as the prime minister of the country on 14 August 1973, after he had secured 108 votes in a house of 146 members.
    More Details Hide Details Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry was elected as the president under the new constitution. During his five years of government, the Bhutto government made extensive reforms at every level of government. Pakistan's capital and Western reforms that were began to take place and built in 1947 throughout the 1970s, were transformed and replaced with Socialist system. His policies were seen people friendly, but it did not produce long-lasting effects as the civil disorder against Bhutto began to take place in 1977.
    On the midnight of 9 February 1973, Bhutto launched an operation to seize control of the Iraqi Embassy, and preparation for siege was hastily prepared.
    More Details Hide Details The operation was highly risky and a wrong step could have started a war between the two countries. The operation was carefully analysed and at 0:00hrs (12:00 am), the SSG Division accompanied by Army Rangers stormed the Embassy. Military Police arrested the Iraqi Ambassador, the military attache, and Iraq's diplomatic staff. Following the incident, authorities discovered 300 Soviet submachine guns with 50,000 rounds of ammunition and a large amount of money that was to be distributed amongst Baluchi separatist groups. Bhutto was angered and frustrated. Without demanding an explanation, he ordered the Military Police to immediately expel the Iraqi Ambassador and his staff as persona non grata on the first available flight. The government announced the Iraqi plan to further dismember the country, and Bhutto's successful diplomatic offensive against Iraq isolated Saddam internationally with global condemnation. This incident caused Pakistan to support Iran during the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s and the U.S. invasion of Iraq against Saddam Hussein in 2003.
    This operation was supposed to be covert, but in 1973, the operation was exposed by M.I. when senior separatist leader Akbar Bugti defected to Bhutto, revealing a series of arms stored in the Iraqi Embassy.
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    In 1973, Iraq provided the Baluchis with conventional arms, and it opened an office for the Baluchistan Liberation Front (BLF) in Baghdad.
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    Following the alleged discovery of Iraqi arms in Islamabad in February 1973, Bhutto dissolved the Provincial Assembly of Balochistan.
    More Details Hide Details The operation, under General Tikka Khan, soon took shape in a five-year conflict with the Baloch separatists. The sporadic fighting between the insurgency and the army started in 1973 with the largest confrontation taking place in September 1974. Later on, Pakistan Navy, under Vice-Admiral Patrick Julius Simpson, also jumped in the conflict as it had applied naval blockades to Balochistan's port. The Navy began its separate operations to seized the shipments sent to aid Baloch separatists. Pakistan Air Force also launched air operations, and with the support of navy and army, the air force had pounded the mountainous hidden heavens of the Separatists. The Iranian military, also fearing a spread of the greater Baloch resistance in Iran, aided the Pakistani military as well. Among Iran's contribution were 30 Huey cobra attack helicopters and $200 million in aid. Iraq under Sunni President Saddam Hussein sent Iraqi made weapons to Pakistan's warm water ports. Pakistan's navy mounted an effective blockade. Saddam's government provided support for Baluchi separatists in Pakistan, hoping their conflict would spread to rival Iran.
    In January 1973, Bhutto ordered the Pakistan Armed Forces to suppress a rising insurgency in the province of Balochistan.
    More Details Hide Details He dismissed the governments in Balochistan and the North-West Frontier Province once more.
    While commenting on his policies in 1973, Bhutto told the group of investors that belonged to the Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industry (LCCI) that "activity of public sector or state sector prevents the concentration of economic power in few hands, and protects the small and medium entrepreneurs from the clutches of giant enterprises and vested interests".
    More Details Hide Details Bhutt's shift away from some socialist policies badly upset his democratic socialist alliance and many in the Pakistan Peoples Party, many of his colleagues, most notable Malik Mirage left Bhutto and departed to Soviet Union after resigning from Law Minister. Continuous disagreement led the government's socialist alliance to collapse and further uniting with secular Independence Movement led by Asghar Khan. As part of his investment policies, Bhutto founded the National Development Finance Corporation (NDFC). In July 1973, this financial institute began operation with an initial government investment of 100 million PRs. It aim was finance public sector industrial enterprises but, later on, its charter was modified to provide finance to the private sector as well. The NDFC is currently the largest development finance institution of Pakistan performing diversified activities in the field of industrial financing and investment banking. 42 projects financed by NDFC have contributed Rs. 10,761 million to Pakistan's GDP and generated Rs. 690 million after-tax profits and 40,465 jobs. By the mid-1990s NDFC had a pool of resources amounting to US $878 million The Bhutto government increased the level of investment, private and public, in the economy from less than Rs. 7,000 million in 1971–72 to more than Rs. 17,000 million in 1974–75.
    During his period in office the government carried out seven major amendments to the 1973 Constitution.
    More Details Hide Details The First Amendment led to Pakistan's recognition of and diplomatic ties with Bangladesh. The Second Amendment in the constitution declared the Ahmadis as non-Muslims, and defined the term non-Muslim. The rights of the detained were limited under the Third Amendment while the powers and jurisdiction of the courts for providing relief to political opponents were curtailed under the Fourth Amendment. The Fifth Amendment passed on 15 September 1976, focused on curtailing the power and jurisdiction of the Judiciary. This amendment was highly criticised by lawyers and political leaders. The main provision of the Sixth Amendment extended the term of the Chief Justices of the Supreme Court and the High Courts beyond the age of retirement. This Amendment was made in the Constitution to favour the then Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who was supposed to be a friend of Bhutto. The Bhutto government carried out a number of reforms in the industrial sector. His reforms were twofold: nationalisation, and the improvement of workers' rights. In the first phase, basic industries like steel, chemical and cement were nationalised. This was done in 1972. The next major step in nationalisation took place on 1 January 1974, when Bhutto nationalised all banks. The last step in the series was the nationalisation of all flour, rice and cotton mills throughout the country. This nationalisation process was not as successful as Bhutto expected. Most of the nationalised units were small businesses that could not be described as industrial units, hence making no sense for the step that was taken.
    Bhutto supervised the promulgation of 1973 constitution that triggered an unstoppable constitutional revolution through his politics wedded to the emancipation of the downtrodden masses, by first giving people a voice in the Parliament, and introducing radical changes in the economic sphere for their benefit.
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    Bhutto is considered the main architect of 1973 constitution as part of his vision to put Pakistan to road to parliamentary democracy.
    More Details Hide Details One of the major achievements in Bhutto's life was drafting of Pakistan's first ever consensus constitution to the country.
    Domestically, Bhutto's reign saw parliament unanimously approve a new constitution in 1973, after which he endorsed Fazal Ilahi's bid for president, and assumed instead the newly empowered office of prime minister.
    More Details Hide Details He also played an integral role in initiating the atomic–bomb programme. His economic programme was based on the nationalization of much of Pakistan's industries, and expansion of the Welfare State by introducing minimum wage and old age benefits. In addition Bhutto launched the process of industrial reconstruction by establishing Pakistan Steel Mills and Port Qasim. Bhutto dissolved the Balochistan Assembly following the discovery of arms from Iraq destined for rebels, this was met with unrest, Bhutto responded by introducing a series of political and economic reforms.
  • 1972
    Age 44
    Instead, in January 1972, Bhutto chose a U.S.-trained nuclear engineer, Munir Ahmad Khan, as chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) as Bhutto realised that he wanted an administrator who understood the scientific and economical needs of this such technologically giant and ambitious programme.
    More Details Hide Details Since 1965, Khan had developed an extremely close and trusted relationship with Bhutto, and even after his death, Benazir and Murtaza Bhutto were instructed by their father to keep in touch with Munir Ahmed Khan. In spring of 1976, Kahuta Research Facility, then known as Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL), as part of codename Project-706, was also established by Bhutto, and brought under nuclear scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan and the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers' Lieutenant-General Zahid Ali Akbar. Because Pakistan, under Bhutto, was not a signatory or party of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), Commissariat à l'énergie atomique (CEA), and British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) had immediately cancelled fuel reprocessing plant projects with PAEC. And, according to Causar Nyäzie, the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission officials had misled Bhutto and he sought on a long journey to try to get nuclear fuel reprocessing plant from France. It was on the advice of A. Q. Khan that no fuel existed to reprocess and urged Bhutto to follow his pursuit of uranium enrichment. Bhutto tried to show he was still interested in that expensive route and was relieved when Kissinger persuaded the French to cancel the deal. Bhutto had trusted Munir Ahmad Khan's plans to develop the programme ingeniously, and the mainstream goal of showing such interest in French reprocessing plant was to give time to PAEC scientists to gain expertise in building its own reprocessing plants.
    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP-I) was inaugurated by Bhutto during his role as President of Pakistan at the end of 1972 The nuclear weapons programme was set up loosely based on Manhattan Project of the 1940s under the administrative control of Bhutto.
    More Details Hide Details And, senior academic scientists had a direct access to Bhutto, who kept him informed about every inch of the development. Bhutto's Science Advisor, Abdus Salam's office was also sat up in Bhutto's Prime minister Secretariat. On Bhutto's request, Salam had established and led the Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) that marked the beginning of the nuclear deterrent programme. The TPG designed and developed the nuclear weapons as well as the entire programme. Later, Munir Ahmad Khan had him personally approved the budget for the development of the programme. Wanting a capable administrator, Bhutto sought Lieutenant-General Rahimuddin Khan to chair the commission, which Rahimuddin declined, in 1971.
    By the end week of December 1972, Salam returned to Pakistan, loaded with literature on the Manhattan Project, in his huge suitcases.
    More Details Hide Details In 1974, Bhutto launched a more aggressive and serious diplomatic offensive on the United States and the Western world over the nuclear issues. Writing to the world and Western leaders, Bhutto made it clear and maintained: Shortly, roughly two weeks past after experiencing the 1971 winter war, on 20 January 1972, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto rallied a conference of nuclear scientists and engineers at Multan. While at the Multan meeting, arranged by Bhutto's Science Advisor Abdus Salam, scientists were wondering why the President who had so much on his hands in those trying days was paying so much attention to the scientists and engineers in the nuclear field. At the meeting Bhutto slowly talked about the recent war and country's future, pointing out the existence of the country was in great moral danger. While the academicians listened to Bhutto carefully, Bhutto said: "Look, we're going to have the bomb". Bhutto asked them: "Can you give it to me? And how long will it take it to make a bomb?". Many of senior scientists had witnessed the war, and were emotionally and psychologically disturbed, therefore, the response was positive when the senior academic scientists replied: "Oh Yes.. Yes... You can have it." There was a lively debate on the time needed to make the bomb, and finally one scientist dared to say that maybe it could be done in five years. Prime Minister Bhutto smiled, lifted his hand, and dramatically thrust forward three fingers and said: "Three years, I want it in three years".
    In November 1972, Bhutto advised Salam to travel to United States to evade the war, and advised him to return with the key literature on nuclear history.
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    He appointed General Tikka Khan as the new Chief of the Army Staff in March 1972 as he felt the general would not interfere in political matters and would concentrate on rehabilitating the Pakistan Army.
    More Details Hide Details Bhutto convened the National Assembly on 14 April, rescinded martial law on 21 April and charged the legislators with writing a new constitution. Bhutto visited India to meet Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and negotiated a formal peace agreement and the release of 93,000 Pakistani prisoners of war. The two leaders signed the Simla Agreement, which committed both nations to establish a new-yet-temporary Line of Control in Kashmir and obligated them to resolve disputes peacefully through bilateral talks. Bhutto also promised to hold a future summit for the peaceful resolution of the Kashmir dispute and pledged to recognise Bangladesh. Although he secured the release of Pakistani soldiers held by India, Bhutto was criticised by many in Pakistan for allegedly making too many concessions to India. It is theorised that Bhutto feared his downfall if he could not secure the release of Pakistani soldiers and the return of territory occupied by Indian forces. Bhutto established an atomic power development programme and inaugurated the first Pakistani atomic reactor, built in collaboration with Canada in Karachi on 28 November. On 30 March 59 military officers were arrested by army troops for allegedly plotting a coup against Bhutto, who appointed then-Brigadier Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq to head a military tribunal to investigate and try the suspects. The National Assembly approved the new 1973 Constitution, which Bhutto signed into effect on 12 April. The constitution proclaimed an "Islamic Republic" in Pakistan with a parliamentary form of government.
    On 2 January 1972 Bhutto announced the nationalisation of all major industries, including iron and steel, heavy engineering, heavy electricals, petrochemicals, cement and public utilities.
    More Details Hide Details A new labour policy was announced increasing workers' rights and the power of trade unions. Although he came from a feudal background himself, Bhutto announced reforms limiting land ownership and a government take-over of over a million acres to distribute to landless peasants. More than 2,000 civil servants were dismissed on charges of corruption. Bhutto also dismissed the military chiefs on 3 March after they refused orders to suppress a major police strike in Punjab.
  • 1971
    Age 43
    Other army men who lay blame for 1971 on Bhutto include future President Pervez Musharraf and East Pakistan's former Martial Law Administrator Syed Mohammad Ahsan.
    More Details Hide Details Bhutto is also often criticised for human-rights abuses in Baluchistan by hardline Islamists as well as conservatives. Bhutto's actions during the 1970s operation in Balochistan are also criticised for failing to bring about a lasting peace in the region. Bhutto's international image is more positive, casting him as a secular internationalist. Domestically, despite the criticism, Bhutto still remains Pakistan's most popular leader. During his premiership, Bhutto succeeded in uniting all the parties in getting the 1973 constitution enacted. His determined and aggressive embrace of nuclear weapons for Pakistan has made him regarded as the father of Pakistan's nuclear-deterrence programme, which he pursued in spite of Pakistan's limited financial resources and strong opposition from the United States. In 2006, The Atlantic described Bhutto as demagogic and extremely populist, but still Pakistan's greatest civilian leader.
    A Pakistan International Airlines flight was sent to fetch Bhutto from New York, who at that time was presenting Pakistan's case before the United Nations Security Council on the East Pakistan Crises. Bhutto returned home on 18 December 1971.
    More Details Hide Details On 20 December, he was taken to the President House in Rawalpindi, where he took over two positions from Yahya Khan, one as president and the other as first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator. Thus, he was the first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator of the dismembered Pakistan. By the time Bhutto had assumed control of what remained of Pakistan, the nation was completely isolated, angered, and demoralized. As president, Bhutto faced mounting challenges on both internal and foreign fronts. The trauma was severe in Pakistan, a psychological setback and emotional breakdown for Pakistan. The two-nation theory—the theoretical basis for the creation of Pakistan—lay discredited, and Pakistan's foreign policy collapsed when no moral support was found anywhere, including longstanding allies such as the U.S. and China. Since her creation, the physical and moral existence of Pakistan was in great danger. On the internal front, Baloch, Sindhi and Pashtun nationalisms were at their peak, calling for their independence from Pakistan. Finding it difficult to keep Pakistan united, Bhutto launched full-fledged intelligence and military operations to stamp out any separatist movements. By the end of 1978, these nationalist organizations were brutally quelled by Pakistan Armed Forces.
    Bhutto was handed over the presidency in December 1971 and emergency rule was imposed.
    More Details Hide Details Bhutto set about rebuilding Pakistan he stated his intention to 'rebuild confidence and rebuild hope for the future'. By July 1972, Bhutto had recovered 93,000 prisoners of war and 5,000 square miles of Indian-held territory after signing the Simla Agreement. In foreign affairs, he strengthened ties with the Soviet Union, China and Saudi Arabia, and recognised the sovereignty of Bangladesh.
  • 1970
    Age 42
    Following Ayub's resignation, his successor, General Yahya Khan promised to hold parliamentary elections on 7 December 1970.
    More Details Hide Details Bhutto attracted the leftist and ultra-leftist forces, who gathered under his leadership, becoming the full sum of force. The Socialist-Communist mass, under Bhutto's leadership, intensified its support in Muhajir and poor farming communities in West Pakistan, working through educating people to cast their vote for their better future. Gathering and uniting the scattered socialist-marxist mass in one single center was considered Bhutto's greatest political achievements and as its result, the leftist and Bhutto's party won a large number of seats from constituencies in West-Pakistan. However, Sheikh Mujib's Awami League won an absolute majority in the legislature, receiving more than twice as many votes as Bhutto's PPP. Bhutto refused to accept an Awami League government and famously promised to "break the legs" of any elected PPP member who dared to attend the inaugural session of the National Assembly. Capitalising on West Pakistani fears of East Pakistani separatism, Bhutto demanded that Sheikh Mujib form a coalition with the PPP. Amidst popular outrage in East Pakistan, Sheikh Mujib declared the independence of "Bangladesh". According to historical references and a report published by leading newspaper, "Mujib no longer believed in Pakistan and was determined to make Bangladesh", despite Bhutto's urged. As long as she is the prime minister, relations between Bangladesh and Pakistan cannot normalise, The Nation noted.
  • 1969
    Age 41
    Dr. Hassan and Bhutto's arrest on 12 November 1969, sparked greater political unrest.
    More Details Hide Details After his release, Bhutto, joined by key leaders of PPP, attended the Round Table Conference called by Ayub Khan in Rawalpindi, but refused to accept Ayub's continuation in office and the East-Pakistani politician Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's Six point movement for regional autonomy.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1967
    Age 39
    On 30 November 1967, at the Lahore residence of Mubashir Hassan, a gathering that included Bhutto, Bengali communist J. A. Rahim and Basit Jehangir Sheikh founded the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), establishing a strong base in Punjab, Sindh and amongst the Muhajirs.
    More Details Hide Details Hassan, an engineering professor at UET Lahore, was the main brain and hidden hand behind the success and the rise of Bhutto. Under Hassan's guidance and Bhutto's leadership, the PPP became a part of the pro-democracy movement involving diverse political parties from all across Pakistan. The PPP activists staged large protests and strikes in different parts of the country, increasing pressure on Ayub to resign.
    Following his resignation as foreign minister, large crowds gathered to listen to Bhutto's speech upon his arrival in Lahore on 21 June 1967.
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  • 1966
    Age 38
    In October 1966 Bhutto made explicit the beliefs of his new party, "Islam is our faith, democracy is our policy, socialism is our economy.
    More Details Hide Details All power to the people."
    Initially denying the rumours, Bhutto resigned in June 1966 and expressed strong opposition to Ayub's regime.
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  • 1965
    Age 37
    Hussain had previously served as Bhutto's Foreign secretary in 1965, and was alleged to have strongly disliked and distrusted Bhutto.
    More Details Hide Details Hussain was a not only a Zia appointee but hailed from his home Jullundur district. The trial lasted five months, and Bhutto appeared in court in a dock specially built for the trial. Proceedings began on 24 October 1977. Masood Mahmood, the director general of the Federal Security Force (since renamed the Federal Investigation Agency), testified against Bhutto. Mahmood had been arrested immediately after Zia's coup and had been imprisoned for two months prior to taking the stand. In his testimony, he claimed Bhutto had ordered Kasuri's assassination and that four members of the Federal Security Force had organised the ambush on Bhutto's orders. The four alleged assassins were arrested and later confessed. They were brought into court as "co-accused" but one of them recanted his testimony, declaring that it had been extracted from him under torture. The following day, the witness was not present in court and the prosecution claimed that he had suddenly "fallen ill".
    During his term, Bhutto was known to be formulating aggressive geostrategic and foreign policies against India. In 1965, Bhutto's friend Munir Ahmad Khan informed him of the status of India's nuclear programme.
    More Details Hide Details Bhutto reportedly said, "Pakistan will fight, fight for a thousand years. If.. India builds the (atom) bomb. (Pakistan) will eat grass or (leaves), even go hungry, but we (Pakistan) will get one of our own (atom bomb). We (Pakistan) have no other Choice!". In his 1969 book The Myth of Independence Bhutto argued that it was the necessity for Pakistan to acquire the fission weapon, and start a deterrence programme to be able to stand up to the industrialised states, and against a nuclear armed India. Bhutto obtained a manifesto and made a future policy on how the programme would be developed and which individual scientists would start the program. Bhutto selected Munir Ahmad Khan and Abdus Salam as the first and main basis of the programme.
  • 1963
    Age 35
    Bhutto was a Pakistani nationalist and socialist, with particular views on the type of democracy needed in Pakistan. On becoming foreign minister in 1963, his socialist viewpoint influenced him to embark on a close relationship with neighbouring China.
    More Details Hide Details At the time, many other countries accepted Taiwan as the legitimate single government of China, at a time when two governments each claimed to be "China". In 1964, the Soviet Union and its satellite states broke off relations with Beijing over ideological differences, and only Albania and Pakistan supported the People's Republic of China. Bhutto staunchly supported Beijing in the UN, and in the UNSC, while also continuing to build bridges to the United States. Bhutto's strong advocacy of developing ties with China came under severe criticism from the United States. President Lyndon B. Johnson wrote to Ayub Khan demanding him to dismiss Bhutto and maintain ties only with the "free world". Bhutto addressed his speeches in a demagogic style and headed the foreign ministry aggressively. His leadership style and his swift rise to power brought him national prominence and popularity. Bhutto and his staff visited Beijing and were warmly received by the Chinese, and Bhutto greeted Mao Zedong with great respect. There, Bhutto helped Ayub negotiate trade and military agreements with the Chinese regime, which agreed to help Pakistan in several military and industrial projects.
  • 1962
    Age 34
    Bhutto criticised the U.S. for providing military aid to India during and after the 1962 Sino-Indian War, which was seen as an abrogation of Pakistan's alliance with the United States
    More Details Hide Details Meanwhile, Ayub Khan, on Bhutto's counsel, launched Operation Gibraltar in a bid to "liberate" Kashmir. It ended in a fiasco and the Indian Armed Forces launched a successful counter-attack on West Pakistan (Indo-Pakistani War of 1965). This war was an aftermath of brief skirmishes that took place between March and August 1965 on the international boundaries in the Rann of Kutch, Kashmir and Punjab. Bhutto joined Ayub in Uzbekistan to negotiate a peace treaty with the Indian premier Lal Bahadur Shastri. Ayub and Shastri agreed to exchange prisoners of war and withdraw respective forces to pre-war boundaries. This agreement was deeply unpopular in Pakistan, causing major political unrest against Ayub's regime. Bhutto's criticism of the final agreement caused a major rift between him and Ayub.
    Bhutto then visited Poland and established diplomatic relations in 1962.
    More Details Hide Details Bhutto used Pakistan Air Force's Brigadier-General Władysław Turowicz to establish the military and economical link between Pakistan and Poland. Bhutto sought and reached to the Polish community in Pakistan and made a tremendous effort for a fresh avenues for mutual cooperation. In 1962, as territorial differences increased between India and China, Beijing was planning to stage an invasion in northern territories of India. Premier Zhou Enlai and Mao invited Pakistan to join the raid and extricate the rest of Indian-held Kashmir from Indian control. Bhutto advocated for the plan, but Ayub opposed the plan: he was afraid of retaliation by Indian troops. Instead Ayub proposed a "joint defence union" with India. Bhutto was shocked by such statements and felt Ayub Khan was unlettered in international affairs. Bhutto was conscious that despite Pakistan's membership of anti-communist western alliances, China had refrained from criticising Pakistan. In 1962, the U.S. assured Pakistan that Kashmir issues will be resolved according to the wishes of Pakistanis and the Kashmiris. Therefore, Ayub did not participate in the Chinese plans.
  • 1960
    Age 32
    Bhutto aided his president in negotiating the Indus Water Treaty in India in 1960 and next year negotiated an oil-exploration agreement with the Soviet Union, which agreed to provide economic and technical aid to Pakistan.
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    In 1960, he was promoted to Minister of Water and Power, Communications and Industry.
    More Details Hide Details Bhutto became trusted ally and advisor of Ayub Khan, rising in influence and power despite his youth and relative inexperience.
  • 1958
    Age 30
    He addressed the UN Sixth Committee on Aggression that October and led Pakistan's delegation to the first UN Conference on the Law of the Sea in 1958.
    More Details Hide Details That year, Bhutto became Pakistan's youngest cabinet minister, taking up the reins of the Ministry of Commerce by President Iskander Mirza, pre-coup d'état government.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1957
    Age 29
    In 1957, Bhutto became the youngest member of Pakistan's delegation to the United Nations.
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  • 1951
    Age 23
    Bhutto married his second wife, the Iranian Nusrat Ispahani, in Karachi on 8 September 1951.
    More Details Hide Details Their first child, Benazir, was born in 1953. She was followed by Murtaza in 1954, Sanam in 1957 and Shahnawaz in 1958. He accepted the post of lecturer at the S. M. Law College, from where he was also awarded an honorary doctorate in law by college president Hassanally A. Rahman before establishing himself in a legal practice in Karachi. He also took over the management of his family's estate and business interests after his father's death.
  • 1950
    Age 22
    In June 1950, Bhutto travelled to the United Kingdom to study law at Christ Church, Oxford and received an LLB, followed by an LLM degree in law and an M.Sc. (honours) degree in political science.
    More Details Hide Details Upon finishing his studies, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1953.
  • TEENAGE
  • 1947
    Age 19
    Coming to power in a palace coup, he secured the accession of his state to Pakistan, which was ultimately negated by Indian intervention in December 1947.
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    In 1947, Bhutto was admitted to the University of Southern California to study political science.
    More Details Hide Details In 1949, as a sophomore, Bhutto transferred to the University of California, Berkeley, where he earned a B.A. (honours) degree in political science in 1950. There, Bhutto became interested in the theories of socialism, delivering a series of lectures on their feasibility in Islamic countries. During this time, Bhutto's father played a controversial role in the affairs of Junagadh.
  • 1945
    Age 17
    He later divorced her in 1945, however, in order to remarry.
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  • 1943
    Age 15
    In 1943, his marriage was arranged with Shireen Amir Begum.
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  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1928
    Age 0
    Born on January 5, 1928.
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