Abdus Salam

Pakistani physicist Abdus Salam

Mohammad Abdus Salam, NI, SPk (was a Pakistani theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his work on the electroweak unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces. Salam, Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg shared the 1979 Nobel prize for this discovery. Salam holds the distinction of being the first Pakistani and the first Muslim Nobel Laureate to receive the prize in Physics.
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Death Place
United Kingdom

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Police Close Investigation Into New York Judge's Death, Saying It Was Likely Suicide
NPR - 10 months
The NYPD has completed its investigation into the death of Judge Sheila Abdus-Salaam, the first African-American woman on the New York Court of Appeals. The medical examiner will make a final ruling. (Image credit: Hans Pennink/AP)
Article Link:
 NPR article
NYPD Completes Investigation of Judge's Death
Wall Street Journal - 10 months
The New York Police Department has completed its investigation into the death of Sheila Abdus-Salaam, the first African-American woman on the New York Court of Appeals, authorities said.
Article Link:
 Wall Street Journal article
NYPD Deems Judge's Death 'Suspicious' After Leaning Toward Suicide
NPR - 10 months
Sheila Abdus-Salaam, the first African-American woman to be appointed to New York's highest state court, the Court of Appeals, was found dead earlier this month in the Hudson River. (Image credit: Mike Groll/AP)
Article Link:
 NPR article
Mysterious death of New York judge was initially called a suicide. Now, police think it's suspicious
LATimes - 10 months
The mystery of how a prominent African American judge came to be found floating dead in the Hudson River has deepened as her family and widowed husband disputed suggestions by the New York Police Department that she had committed suicide. What is known is that Sheila Abdus-Salaam, 65, a judge on...
Article Link:
 LATimes article
Mysterious death of New York judge was initially called a suicide. Now, police think it's suspicious
LATimes - 10 months
The mystery of how a prominent African American judge came to be found floating dead in the Hudson River has deepened as her family and widowed husband disputed suggestions by the New York Police Department that she had committed suicide. What is known is that Sheila Abdus-Salaam, 65, a judge on...
Article Link:
 LATimes article
Video Shows Judge Walking Alone Before Her Death
Wall Street Journal - 10 months
New York police detectives have discovered a video showing Judge Sheila Abdus-Salaam walking alone toward the Hudson River in Manhattan the night before police found her body floating in the water, a senior law-enforcement official said Wednesday.
Article Link:
 Wall Street Journal article
Trailblazing judge found dead
CNN - 11 months
Sheila Abdus-Salaam, the first African-American woman appointed to the New York Court of Appeals, was found dead in the Hudson River.
Article Link:
 CNN article
Death Of Trailblazing Black Female Judge Is 'Suspicious,' NYPD Says
Huffington Post - 11 months
Sheila Abdus-Salaam, the first African-American woman to serve on New York's highest court, was found dead in the Hudson River last week.
Article Link:
 Huffington Post article
Pakistan’s Premier Honors Nobel Laureate From Persecuted Minority
NYTimes - about 1 year
Abdus Salam, a theoretical physicist, was honored by having a department of physics at one of the nation’s leading public universities renamed after him.
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 NYTimes article
Saudi Airstrikes Kill Scores Of Mourners At Funeral Service In Yemen
Huffington Post - over 1 year
SANAA (Reuters) - Saudi-led warplanes killed at least 82 people when they struck mourners at a hall in the Yemeni capital Sanaa on Saturday, the acting health minister in the Houthi-run administration said, but the coalition denied any role in the incident. Ghazi Ismail also said that 534 other people were wounded in the air strike in the southern part of the city, where a wake was taking place for the father of the administration’s interior minister, Jalal al-Roweishan, who had died of natural causes on Friday. The death toll was one of the largest in any single incident since the Saudi-led alliance began military operations to try to restore President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi to power following his ousting by the Iran-aligned Houthis in March 2015. “The Saudi aggression committed a major crime today, by attacking a mourning hall for the al-Roweishan family, targeting residents in the hall. As a result, 534 were wounded and 82 were martyred,” Ismail told a news conference in...
Article Link:
 Huffington Post article
The Ahmadi Conundrum in Pakistan
Huffington Post - about 2 years
Blasphemy is a crime in Pakistan, the punishment for which can be death. The law is a left over of the Indian Penal Code that the British had introduced, and which was later expanded upon by the military dictator Zia ul Haq. More often than not, it is used to target minority communities, especially the Ahmadiyya, who were declared non-Muslims in 1974, through a constitutional amendment. Under this amendment, the community is banned from using Islamic terms, using Islamic texts to pray or even calling their places of worship 'masjid'. In October 2015, the Council of Islamic Ideology, took the persecution of this blighted community a step further, when its Chairman announced that he was going to call a meeting to discuss -- among other things -- whether Ahmadis are non-Muslims or apostates. The Council does not make laws for Pakistan, and its position is advisory, however, making statements like these only adds to the bigotry against the Ahmadi. If the Council does decide that Ahmad...
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 Huffington Post article
Yemen's warring sides say ceasefire to begin on Monday
Yahoo News - about 2 years
By Mohammed Ghobari DUBAI (Reuters) - A seven-day ceasefire in Yemen will start on Monday, the day before planned U.N.-sponsored peace talks in Switzerland, senior officials on both sides of the civil war that has killed nearly 6,000 people said on Saturday. "Based on what had been agreed upon, there will be a halt of the aggression on the 14th of this month," Houthi spokesman Mohammed Abdul-Salam told a news conference broadcast live from the Yemeni capital Sanaa. The Houthis, allied with Iran, have been locked for nine months in a civil war with forces loyal to President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi's exiled government, who are backed by air strikes and ground forces from a mainly Gulf Arab coalition led by Saudi Arabia.
Article Link:
 Yahoo News article
When Will The Muslim World Honor Its First Muslim Scientist Nobel Laureate?
Huffington Post - about 4 years
Muslims today boast, rightfully, about Islam's Golden Age and its unprecedented contributions to the sciences. Muslim leaders worldwide implore Muslims to rise up to that greatness once more. But in doing so, too many ignore the 20th century's most prominent Muslim scientist--one who once again rekindled the brilliance of the countless Muslim scientists who created the Golden Age of Islam. On January 29th, the world celebrates Pakistani scientist Dr. Abdus Salam's 88th birthday. Sadly, much of the Muslim world, with Pakistan leading the way, will once again ignore him. Dr. Salam was the world's first Muslim scientist Nobel Laureate. He received the Nobel in Physics in 1979 for predicting the Higgs Boson decades before its discovery in 2012. Despite his unprecedented contribution to humanity, the Muslim world at large and Pakistan in particular has ignored and demonized him--even desecrating his grave after he died. Why this injustice? The following is an excerpt from my critically ac...
Article Link:
 Huffington Post article
Overcoming Historical Amnesia: Muslim Contributions to Civilization
Huffington Post - over 4 years
In his recent article, Sam Harris, a popular critic of Islam, referred to Malala Yousafzai, the Pakistani education activist, as "the best thing to come out of the Muslim world in 1,000 years." Hidden in this comment is the idea that Malala's fellow Muslims are backward and that her religion, Islam, is not conducive to change or progress. Conversely to the beliefs of Harris and others like him, Muslims have actually made enormous contributions to civilization, perhaps due to the heavy emphasis that Islam places on knowledge. People who forget or blatantly ignore major trends or events in world history can be said to suffer from "historical amnesia." Though this mindset cannot be cured in one short blog post, I hope to dispel some of the stereotypes and misperceptions exacerbated by Harris and other anti-Islam activists by highlighting the contributions that Muslims have made to civilization over the years. Contributions to education Malala's quest for universal education follows...
Article Link:
 Huffington Post article
Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Abdus Salam
    TWENTIES
  • 1996
    In August 1996, the former chairman of PAEC and lifelong friend, Munir Ahmad Khan and met Salam in Oxford.
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  • TEENAGE
  • 1983
    In 1983, Riazuddin and Asghar Qadir returned to ICTP where they had joined Salam, and stayed with him until 1990.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1979
    During his visit at the Institute of Physics of Quaid-i-Azam University in 1979, Salam had explained after receiving his award: Physicists believed there are four fundamental forces of nature; the gravitational force, the weak and strong nuclear force, and the electromagnetic force.
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  • 1974
    In 1974, he founded International Nathiagali Summer College (INSC) to promote science in his country.
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    Salam remained associated with the nuclear weapons programme until the mid-1974, when he left the country after Ahmadi were declared non-Muslims by the Pakistani Parliament.
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    On March 1974, Salam and Khan also established the Wah Group Scientist that was charged with manufacturing materials, explosive lenses and triggering mechanism development of the weapon.
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    In 1974, Abdus Salam departed from his country, in protest, after the Pakistan Parliament passed a controversial parliamentary bill declaring the Ahmadiyya movement, to which Salam belonged, as not-Islamic.
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  • 1972
    In 1972, Salam had formed the Mathematical Physics Group, under Raziuddin Siddiqui, that was charged, with the Theoretical Physics Group, with carrying out research in the theory of simultaneity during the detonation process, and the mathematics involved in the theory of nuclear fission Following India's surprise nuclear test —Pokhran-I – in 1974, Munir Ahmad Khan had called for a meeting to initiate work on atomic bomb, which was attended by Salam and at which Muhammad Hafeez Qureshi was appointed head of the Directorate of Technical Development in PAEC.
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    In December 1972, two theoretical physicists working at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics were asked by Salam to report to Munir Ahmad Khan, the scientific director of the program.
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    In 1972, Salam, as Science Advisor to the President, had managed and participated in a secret meeting of nuclear scientists with Bhutto in Multan, which came to be known as the "Multan Meeting".
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  • 1971
    In 1971, Salam had travelled to the United States and returned to Pakistan with scientific literature about the Manhattan Project, and calculations involving in atomic bombs.
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    In November 1971, Salam met with Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in his residence, and following Bhutto's advice, Salam went to United States to avoid the 1971 Indo-Pak winter war.
  • OTHER
  • 1965
    In 1965, the plutonium reactor Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor went critical under the leadership of Salam.
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    In 1965, Salam led the establishing of the nuclear research institute—Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology.
    In 1965, Abdus Salam and Edward Durrell Stone signed a contract for the establishment of Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology at Nilore, Islamabad.
    In 1965, with the efforts led by Abdus Salam, the United States and Pakistan signed an agreement in which the US provided Pakistan with a small research reactor.
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    It was due to his effort that in 1965, Canada and Pakistan signed a nuclear energy co-operation deal.
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  • 1964
    Abdus Salam played an influential and significant role in Pakistan's development in nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. In 1964, Abdus Salam was made head of Pakistan's IAEA delegation and represented Pakistan for a decade.
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  • 1961
    Salam was the founder of Pakistan's space programme as he was responsible for the establishment of the space research activities in Pakistan. In early 1961, Salam approached President Ayub Khan to lay the foundation of country's first executive agency to co-ordinate space research.
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    In November 1961, NASA started to build a space facility – Flight Test Range – in Balochistan where Abdus Salam served as its first technical director.
    In October 1961, Salam travelled to the United States and signed a space-co-operation agreement between Pakistan and United States.
    On 16 September 1961, through an executive order, Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission was established, in which Abdus Salam served as the first director.
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    In September 1961, Abdus Salam approached President Ayub Khan to set up the country's first national space agency.
  • 1960
    Abdus Salam returned to Pakistan in 1960 to take charge of a government post that was given to him by President Field Marshal Ayub Khan.
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  • 1959
    Physicists had believed that there were four fundamental forces of nature: the gravitational force, the strong and weak nuclear forces, and the electromagnetic force. Salam had worked on the unification of these forces from 1959 with Glashow and Weinberg.
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    Salam took a fellowship at the Princeton University in 1959, where he met with J.
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    At age 33, Salam became one of the youngest persons to be elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1959.
  • 1957
    In 1957, Punjab University conferred Salam with an Honorary doctorate for his contribution in Particle physics.
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    In 1957, he was invited to take a chair at Imperial College, London, and he and Paul Matthews went on to set up the Theoretical Physics Department at Imperial College.
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  • 1953
    As a result of 1953 Lahore riots, Salam went back to Cambridge and joined St John's College, and took a position as a professor of mathematics in 1954.
    In 1953, Salam was unable to establish a research institute in Lahore, as he faced strong opposition from his peers.
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  • 1952
    In 1952, he was appointed professor and Chair of the Department of Mathematics at the neighbouring University of the Punjab.
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  • 1951
    After receiving his doctorate in 1951, Salam returned to Lahore at the Government College University as a Professor of Mathematics where he remained till 1954.
  • 1950
    In 1950, he received the Smith's Prize from Cambridge University for the most outstanding pre-doctoral contribution to Physics.
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  • 1949
    That same year, he was awarded a scholarship to St John's College, Cambridge, where he completed a BA degree with Double First-Class Honours in Mathematics and Physics in 1949.
  • 1946
    He received his MA in Mathematics from the Government College University in 1946.
  • 1944
    Salam's mentor and tutors wanted him to become an English teacher, but Salam decided to stick with Mathematics As a fourth-year student there, he published his work on Srinivasa Ramanujan's problems in mathematics, and took his B.A. in Mathematics in 1944.
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  • 1926
    Born on January 29, 1926.
Original Authors of this text are noted here.
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