Enver Hoxha

Albanian politician and general Enver Hoxha

Enver Hoxha was the Communist leader of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania. He was chairman of the Democratic Front of Albania and commander-in-chief of the armed forces from 1944 until his death. He served as Prime Minister of Albania from 1944 to 1954 and at various times served as foreign minister and defence minister as well.
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Tiran%C3%AB

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Drawing the dictator - Sydney Morning Herald (blog)
Google News - over 6 years
Our world pages were graced with pen-and-ink caricatures of the leading dictators of the time such as Augusto Pinochet (Chile), Enver Hoxha (Albania) and Manuel Noriga (Panama). And, of course there was and still is Muammar Gaddafi
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Agnosticismo militante - Intereconomía
Google News - over 6 years
Esta gente, entre los que hay, según las fotos de prensa, más de un cincuentón ocioso y cabreado que habría sido feliz en la Albania de Enver Hoxha, parece que está de acuerdo con la excelencia de la uniformidad, con la superioridad del gris sobre
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Ein Pyramidenzwist - derStandard.at
Google News - over 6 years
Die Pyramide, 1988, drei Jahre nach dem Tod von Diktator Enver Hoxha von seinem Schwiegersohn Klement Kolaneci als Museum für Hoxha gebaut, soll nun abgerissen werden und einem neuen Parlament weichen - den Wettbewerb hat Coop Himmelb(l)au gewonnen
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¿Chávez forever? - TalCualDigital.com
Google News - over 6 years
Figuras como Stalin en Rusia, Mao en China, Enver Hoxha en Albania y Tito en Yugoeslavia, del mismo modo que Hitler en Alemania, Mussolini en Italia, y Franco en España, dejaron en sus pueblos, durante el siglo XX, huellas imborrables de lo que
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Alexei Sayle: How Stalin stole my childhood - The Guardian
Google News - over 6 years
On The Young Ones, at the Comedy Store and in his own series Stuff, all those tirades about Thatcher, Oxbridge and Enver Hoxha rang not just funny, but insurrectionist. Now we know why. Sayle – according to his new memoir, Stalin Ate My Homework – was
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Tourism in Albania 2011: Record Numbers Crossing the Border - Suite101.com
Google News - over 6 years
Given its isolated status, even within the old Communist regime under the regime of Enver Hoxha, Albania remains somewhat of an unknown for travellers, even in the modern era. "Foreigners are always curious and a little wary when they visit initially,"
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Albania, tradition of multiculturalism and interfaith - Southeast European Times
Google News - over 6 years
Remembering life as it was under the communist regime, Xhidiku told SETimes he felt "like an animal" when the government of Enver Hoxha forbade religious practices in Albania. "Imagine, I used to go to the mosque with my uncle; he was a hoxha,
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Wrangle growing over Tirana's pyramid - Southeast European Times
Google News - over 6 years
Those calling for its replacement are apprehensive of its one-time role as a museum honouring the late Stalinist dictator Enver Hoxha. "We cannot keep in place a building that holds the ghost of the dictator," Democratic Party MP Enkelejd Alibeaj said
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FRUGAL TRAVELER; On the Albanian Riviera, a Frugal Paradise
NYTimes - over 6 years
Just past the tiny village of Ilias, on the two-lane highway that weaves through the Ceraunian Mountains, a sign pointing down a narrow road indicated a monastery about two kilometers on. ''Why not?'' I thought, putting on the turn signal of my rental car. I had no agenda other than to seek out adventure along the very affordable 80-mile stretch of
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Manchester international festival: A return to Sarajevo - The Guardian
Google News - over 6 years
Kamerić lived through the siege in her late teens, while Sala (born in 1974) grew up under Albanian communism, once making a film about his mother's enthusiastic support for the Enver Hoxha regime. The two artists recreate daily life in Sarajevo
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<B>V V:</B> A guided tour of communism - Business Standard
Google News - over 6 years
Enver Hoxha&#39;s Albania was, by all accounts, the most closed and isolated place in the communist world. Ms Drakulic uses Edgar Allan Poe&#39;s poem The Raven (1845) as the peg to hang her story on the sinister happenings in this inhospitable land between
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On the Albanian Riviera, a Frugal Paradise - New York Times (blog)
Google News - over 6 years
Seth Kugel for The New York TimesBunkers along the coast put in place by Enver Hoxha, the isolationist leader of cold-war-era Albania. Near the beach were a number of mushroom-shaped bunkers that the isolationist dictator Enver Hoxha, who died in 1985,
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Facebook initiative: No Boiko Borissov Day - updated - Sofia Echo
Google News - over 6 years
The message also addresses all media outlets in Bulgaria, saying that they should abstain from the Albanian model of news reporting &quot;Good evening, Enver Hoxha&quot;, a reference to the longstanding leader of Albania from the end of World War 2 until his
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Albania's 'second greatest living writer' was a hoax, but does it really matter? - The Guardian
Google News - over 6 years
The Stalinist regime of Enver Hoxha was no place for free spirits, and Kajane could count himself lucky that his satirical drama Neser Perdite (Tomorrow, Every Day) earned him no more than a ban from the ministry of culture
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Enver Hoxha
    LATE ADULTHOOD
  • 1985
    Age 76
    On 9 April 1985, he was struck by a massive ventricular fibrillation.
    During Hoxha's rule, "there were six institutions for political prisoners and fourteen labour camps where political prisoners and common criminals worked together. It has been estimated that there were approximately 32,000 people imprisoned in Albania in 1985."
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  • 1982
    Age 73
    Banda Mustafaj was a group of four Albanian emigres, led by Xhevdet Mustafa, who wanted to assassinate Enver Hoxha in 1982.
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  • 1981
    Age 72
    Prime Minister Mehmet Shehu, the second-most powerful man in Albania and Hoxha's closest comrade-in-arms for 40 years, was reported to have committed suicide in December 1981.
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  • 1976
    Age 67
    A new Constitution was decided upon by the Seventh Congress of the Albanian Party of Labour on 1–7 November 1976.
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    Following Mao's death on 9 September 1976, Hoxha (who attended Mao's funeral in Beijing) remained optimistic about Sino-Albanian relations, but in August 1977, Hua Guofeng, the new leader of China, stated that Mao's Three Worlds Theory would become official foreign policy.
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  • 1973
    Age 64
    Hoxha suffered a heart attack in 1973 from which he never fully recovered.
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    By 1973, Hoxha wrote in his diary Reflections on China that the Chinese leaders:
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  • 1971
    Age 62
    The result was a 1971 message from the Chinese leadership stating that Albania could not depend on an indefinite flow of further Chinese aid and in 1972 Albania was advised to "curb its expectations about further Chinese contributions to its economic development."
  • FIFTIES
  • 1968
    Age 59
    China entered into a four-year period of relative diplomatic isolation following the Cultural Revolution and at this point relations between China and Albania reached their zenith. On 20 August 1968, the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia was condemned by Albania, as was the Brezhnev doctrine. Albania then officially withdrew from the Warsaw Pact on 5 September. Relations with China began to deteriorate on 15 July 1971, when United States President Richard Nixon agreed to visit China to meet with Zhou Enlai.
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  • 1966
    Age 57
    Mao made a speech on 3 November 1966 which claimed that Albania was the only Marxist-Leninist state in Europe and that "an attack on Albania will have to reckon with great People's China.
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  • 1964
    Age 55
    On 9 January, "The 1964 Sino-Albanian Joint Statement" was signed in Tirana.
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    Zhou Enlai visited Albania in January 1964.
  • 1961
    Age 52
    On 7 November 1961, Hoxha made a speech in which he called Khrushchev a "revisionist, an anti-Marxist and a defeatist."
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  • FORTIES
  • 1955
    Age 46
    Relations with China improved, as evidenced by Chinese aid to Albania being 4.2% in 1955 before the visit, and rising to 21.6% in 1957.
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  • 1950
    Age 41
    Guerrilla units entered Albania in 1950 and 1952, but they were killed or captured by Albanian security forces.
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  • 1949
    Age 40
    Albania was admitted to the Comecon on 22 February 1949 and remained important both as a way to pressure Yugoslavia and to serve as a pro-Soviet force in the Adriatic Sea.
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  • THIRTIES
  • 1948
    Age 39
    After the break with Yugoslavia, Hoxha aligned himself with the Soviet Union, for which he had a great admiration. From 1948 to 1960, $200 million in Soviet aid was given to Albania for technical and infrastructural expansion.
  • 1946
    Age 37
    Hoxha alleged that Tito had made it his goal to get Albania into Yugoslavia, firstly by creating the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Aid in 1946.
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    On 11 January 1946, Zog was officially deposed and Albania was proclaimed the People's Republic of Albania (renamed the People's Socialist Republic of Albania in 1976).
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  • 1945
    Age 36
    The Democratic Front, dominated by the Albanian Communist Party, succeeded the National Liberation Front in August 1945 and the first elections in post-war Albania were held on 2 December.
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  • 1944
    Age 35
    After liberation on 29 November 1944, several Albanian partisan divisions crossed the border into German-occupied Yugoslavia, where they fought alongside Tito's partisans and the Soviet Red Army in a joint campaign which succeeded in driving out the last pockets of German resistance.
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    On 22 October 1944, the Committee became the Democratic Government of Albania after a meeting in Berat and Hoxha was chosen as interim Prime Minister.
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  • 1943
    Age 34
    Within Albania, repeated attempts were made during the war to remedy the communications difficulties which faced partisan groups. In August 1943, a secret meeting was held in Mukje between the anti-communist Balli Kombëtar (National Front) and the Communist Party of Albania.
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    On 10 July 1943, the Albanian partisan groups were organised in regular units of companies, battalions and brigades and named the Albanian National Liberation Army.
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  • 1942
    Age 33
    After the September 1942 Conference at Pezë, the National Liberation Front was founded with the purpose of uniting the anti-Fascist Albanians, regardless of ideology or class. By March 1943, the first National Conference of the Communist Party elected Hoxha formally as First Secretary.
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    In July 1942, Hoxha wrote "Call to the Albanian Peasantry," issued in the name of the Communist Party of Albania.
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    From 8 to 11 April 1942, the First Consultative Meeting of Activists of the Communist Party of Albania was held in Tirana.
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  • 1941
    Age 32
    On 8 November 1941, the Communist Party of Albania (later renamed the Albanian Party of Labour in 1948) was founded.
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  • 1939
    Age 30
    On 7 April 1939, Albania was invaded by Fascist Italy.
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  • TWENTIES
  • 1936
    Age 27
    He returned to Albania in 1936 and taught grammar school in the French Lyceum of Korçë.
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  • 1934
    Age 25
    He dropped out once more, and from 1934 to 1936 he was a secretary at the Albanian consulate in Brussels, attached to the personnel office of the Queen Mother.
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  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1908
    Born
    Born on October 16, 1908.
Original Authors of this text are noted here.
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