George Britain

King of Great Britain and Ireland, Elector of Hanover George Britain

George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Archtreasurer and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain: he was born and brought up in Northern Germany.
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  • 1760
    Age 76
    By October 1760, George II was blind in one eye, and hard of hearing.
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  • 1757
    Age 73
    George donated the royal library to the British Museum in 1757, four years after the museum's foundation.
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    George's son the Duke of Cumberland commanded the king's troops in northern Germany. In 1757, Hanover was invaded and George gave Cumberland full powers to conclude a separate peace.
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  • 1751
    Age 67
    When the Prince of Wales died suddenly in 1751, his eldest son, Prince George, became heir apparent.
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    Frederick died unexpectedly in 1751, nine years before his father, and so George II was ultimately succeeded by his grandson, George III.
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  • 1746
    Age 62
    On 16/27 April 1746, Charles faced George's military-minded son Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, in the Battle of Culloden, the last pitched battle fought on British soil.
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    In February 1746, Pelham and his followers resigned.
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  • 1744
    Age 60
    Carteret lost support, and to George's dismay resigned in 1744.
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  • 1743
    Age 59
    An allied force of Austrian, British, Dutch, Hanoverian and Hessian troops engaged the French at the Battle of Dettingen on 16/27 June 1743.
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  • 1742
    Age 58
    With his support eroded, Walpole retired in 1742 after over 20 years in office.
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  • 1740
    Age 56
    George spent the summers of 1740 and 1741 in Hanover, where he was more able to intervene directly in European diplomatic affairs in his capacity as elector.
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  • 1739
    Age 55
    Against Walpole's wishes, but to George's delight, Britain reopened hostilities with Spain in 1739.
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  • 1737
    Age 53
    Soon afterwards, George's wife Caroline died on 20 November 1737 (O.S.).
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    Further friction between them followed when Frederick excluded the king and queen from the birth of his daughter in July 1737 by bundling his wife, who was in labour, into a coach and driving off in the middle of the night.
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    Eventually, in January 1737, he arrived back in England.
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  • 1736
    Age 52
    In May 1736, George returned to Hanover, which resulted in unpopularity in England; a satirical notice was even pinned to the gates of St James's Palace decrying his absence. "Lost or strayed out of this house", it read, "a man who has left a wife and six children on the parish."
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    Instead, the prince married Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha in April 1736.
  • 1730
    Age 46
    Walpole directed domestic policy, and after the resignation of his brother-in-law Townshend in 1730 also controlled George's foreign policy.
  • 1729
    Age 45
    When George visited Hanover in the summers of 1729, 1732 and 1735, he left his wife to chair the regency council in Britain rather than his son.
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  • 1728
    Age 44
    In 1728, he was brought to England, and swiftly became a figurehead of the political opposition.
  • 1727
    Age 43
    George II was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 11/22 October 1727.
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    George I died on 11/22 June 1727 during one of his visits to Hanover, and George II succeeded him as king and elector at the age of 43.
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  • 1720
    Age 36
    In 1720, Walpole encouraged the king and his son to reconcile, for the sake of public unity, which they did half-heartedly.
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  • 1717
    Age 33
    His new London residence, Leicester House, became a frequent meeting place for his father's political opponents, including Sir Robert Walpole and Viscount Townshend, who had left the government in 1717.
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    His father distrusted or was jealous of George's popularity, which contributed to the development of a poor relationship between them. The birth in 1717 of George's second son, Prince George William, proved to be a catalyst for a family quarrel; the king, supposedly following custom, appointed the Lord Chamberlain, the Duke of Newcastle, as one of the baptismal sponsors of the child.
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  • 1716
    Age 32
    In July 1716, the king returned to Hanover for six months, and George was given limited powers, as "Guardian and Lieutenant of the Realm", to govern in his father's absence.
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  • 1714
    Age 30
    George and his father sailed for England from The Hague on 16/27 September 1714 and arrived at Greenwich two days later.
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  • 1709
    Age 25
    Between 1709 and 1713, George and Caroline had three more children, all girls: Anne, Amelia, and Caroline.
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  • 1708
    Age 24
    In 1708, George participated in the Battle of Oudenarde in the vanguard of the Hanoverian cavalry; his horse and a colonel immediately beside him were killed, but George survived unharmed.
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  • 1707
    Age 23
    In early 1707, George's hopes were fulfilled when Caroline gave birth to a son, Frederick.
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  • 1705
    Age 21
    On 22 August / 2 September 1705 Caroline arrived in Hanover for her wedding, which was held the same evening in the chapel at Herrenhausen.
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    In June 1705, under the false name of "Monsieur de Busch", George visited the Ansbach court at their summer residence in Triesdorf to investigate incognito a marriage prospect: Caroline of Ansbach, the former ward of his aunt Queen Sophia Charlotte of Prussia.
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    He was naturalized as an English subject in 1705 by the Sophia Naturalization Act, and in 1706 he was made a Knight of the Garter and created Duke and Marquess of Cambridge, Earl of Milford Haven, Viscount Northallerton and Baron Tewkesbury in the Peerage of England.
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  • 1701
    Age 17
    She had no surviving children, and by the Act of Settlement 1701 the English Parliament designated Anne's closest Protestant blood relations, George's grandmother Sophia and her descendants, as Anne's heirs in England and Ireland.
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  • 1694
    Age 10
    Both of George's parents committed adultery, and in 1694 their marriage was dissolved on the pretext that Sophia had abandoned her husband.
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  • 1683
    Born in 1683.
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