Hubert Maga

First president ofBenin Hubert Maga

Coutoucou Hubert Maga was a politician from Dahomey (now known as Benin). He arose on a political scene where one's power was dictated by what region in Dahomey they lived. Born a peasant in 1916, Maga served as a schoolmaster from 1936 to 1945, during which time he gradually gained considerable influence among the uneducated.
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Biography
Hubert Maga's personal information overview.
Deceased
08 May 2000
Death Place
Cotonou

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Salvaging Medical Cast-Offs to Save Lives - New York Times (blog)
Google News - over 6 years
Bruce CharashA boy suffering from cerebral malaria was treated at the Hubert Maga Hospital in May 2007. Donated supplies arrived just in time to save his life. When Dr. Bruce Charash arrived in Cotonou, Benin, in May 2007,
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Cnhu/Hubert K. Maga : le nouveau service des urgences déjà en difficulté - La Nouvelle Tribune
Google News - over 6 years
Bénin - (Le mal est profond, les raisons sont ailleurs) A peine deux ans de fonctionnement, et déjà, les nouvelles installations du service des urgences du Centre national hospitalier universitaire (Cnhu) Hubert Maga sont éprouvées
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Interview met TP Orchestre Poly-Rythmo de Cotonou @ Espace Senghor - Tropicalidad
Google News - over 6 years
(lacht)" Destijds was Benin nog een marxistisch/leninistische republiek (Het politieke toneel werd gedomineerd door Sourou Apithy, Hubert Maga en Justin Ahomadegbé, die elk een verschillend deel van het land vertegenwoordigden. Deze drie figuren sloten
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Hubert Maga -- First President of Dahomey, 84
NYTimes - almost 18 years
Hubert Maga, the first president of independent Dahomey, the West African country now called Benin, has died of a heart attack, his family said on Monday. He was 84.. Mr. Maga, who at the time of his death was a member of the Constitutional Court, was elected president in December 1960, the year Dahomey won independence from France. In October
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Hubert Maga
    LATE ADULTHOOD
  • 2000
    Age 83
    He died on May 8, 2000.
    On May 8, 2000, Maga died of a heart attack in Cotonou.
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  • 1998
    Age 81
    He did make some public appearances, such as at independence day celebrations in 1998.
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  • 1989
    Age 72
    Maga established the National Party for Democracy and Development in 1989 and participated in the National Conference of 1990, which gave amnesty to all Beninese political refugees.
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  • 1981
    Age 64
    Maga, Ahomadégbé-Tomêtin, and Apithy spent more than nine years in prison before being freed by Kérékou in 1981.
  • FIFTIES
  • 1972
    Age 55
    It was not established until July 1972, due to, in the words of academic Samuel Decalo, "intensive horse-trading between the partners in the Presidential Council... and pressures from their political lieutenants for a position in the Assembly."
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    Maga transferred power to Ahomadégbé-Tomêtin on May 7, 1972.
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  • 1971
    Age 54
    Students were some of those involved in the protests, and they soon had another reason to conflict with their government. On November 5, 1971, Maga and his administration shut down the Union Général des Etudiants et Eleves de Dahomey (UGEED), a radical youth group which sought to "transform Dahomey into a battlefield" using "workers, soldiers, and policemen."
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    The Council lost popularity with the Kutuklui Affair. By decree of Maga and the rest of the council, Togolese opposition leader Noe Kutuklui was officially expelled from Dahomey on October 27, 1971, where he had been practicing law since the late 1960s.
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  • 1970
    Age 53
    In 1970, he returned to Dahomey to serve as head of a rotating three-man presidential council, which included Ahomadegbé-Tomêtin and Apithy.
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  • 1969
    Age 52
    On December 10, 1969, Zinsou was overthrown by Maurice Kouandété, who had installed him as president in the first place. The military, however, refused to recognize Kouandété, and as the two men could not reach agreement, a Military Directorate was established with Paul Emile de Souza as its chairman. An election was held on March 28, 1970 to determine the true president.
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  • 1968
    Age 51
    In the wake of further coups, politician Emile Derlin Zinsou was appointed civilian President of Dahomey by the military on June 17, 1968.
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  • FORTIES
  • 1965
    Age 48
    Maga and Apithy banded together to protest a special session of the National Assembly on December 21, 1965, that would vote on a new constitution for Dahomey, and the session was never held.
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    During Maga's exile, a number of coups were attempted against Presidents Soglo, Apithy, and Ahomadégbé-Tomêtin and their putschists. In order to gain power back, Maga formed a new party while in exile, the Union Nationale Dahoméenne (U.N.D.), on December 9, 1965.
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    At least one of their goals was accomplished in March 1965 when, following a retrial, Maga was released from house arrest.
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  • 1964
    Age 47
    In May 1964, Chabi Mama and a devoted group of Maga supporters tried to remove him from house arrest and reinstate the overthrown president back into power.
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  • 1962
    Age 45
    Maga ultimately released them on November 3, 1962, saying in a broadcast that it was not only due to their good behavior in jail but also to reconcile with his former enemies.
    Maga decided to reshuffle the cabinet in February 1962.
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    With the threat from his enemies thus removed, Maga could focus on developing the national economy. He designed a four-year growth plan, to begin on January 1, 1962, that contained many ambitious acts, though this was frequently revised to be more realistic.
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  • 1961
    Age 44
    In early 1961, the president began applying repressive measures on the opposition press and anyone suspected of trouble-making, thus effectively silencing Ahomadégbé-Tomêtin's voice in the country.
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    Maga assumed the powers of Commander in Chief of the Dahomeyan Army, although he did not wear its uniform until its capture of the Portuguese enclave of Ajuda on August 1, 1961.
    Maga also faced a national crisis of unity, culminating in a failed assassination plot against him in May 1961 led by the main opposition leader, Justin Ahomadegbé-Tomêtin.
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  • 1960
    Age 43
    On December 11, 1960, Maga was formally elected as president for a five-year term; he received 468,002 votes, and Apithy vice president with the same term of office.
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    On August 1, 1960, Maga traveled to Paris to discuss Dahomey's political future with Houphouët-Boigny.
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    When Dahomey gained its independence from France on August 1, 1960, Maga was appointed to the presidency, and was officially elected to that post on December 11.
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    In response, the premier added more U.D.D. deputies to his government in a January 1960 cabinet reshuffle.
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  • 1959
    Age 42
    Apithy announced on September 2, 1959, that he would remove all P.R.D. deputies from the government if Maga did not establish referendums on Dahomey's political status.
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    Maga was chosen as a compromise for the premiership, and was voted into this post on May 22, 1959.
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    Before the territorial elections of 1959, Maga agreed that the R.D.D. would field candidates only in the north of the country if in return Apithy's Republican Party of Dahomey (P.R.D.) ran only in the south.
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  • 1957
    Age 40
    When Félix Gaillard became Prime Minister of France in November 1957, he appointed Maga to the position of Secretary of State of Labor, a post he served in until the end of the Gaillard ministry on April 15, 1958.
    He subsequently became vice president of the assembly until his resignation in 1957.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1956
    Age 39
    Later that year, he resigned from his position on the Grand Council of French West Africa. Shortly afterwards, Maga became a member of the committees on national education and on justice and legislation, and was named Secretary of the Assemblée on January 25, 1956.
    With the support of his new party, Maga ran for the renewal of his mandate at the legislative elections held on January 2, 1956.
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  • 1954
    Age 37
    During his first term in the Assembly, he accomplished little apart from proposing a bill on May 13, 1954 that concerned the election of counselors of the Republic from its overseas territories and Trust Territories.
  • 1951
    Age 34
    In the legislative elections of June 17, 1951, when Dahomey was allowed an additional representative in the French National Assembly, Maga ran for that office.
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    In 1951, Maga was elected to the French National Assembly, where he served in various positions, including premier from 1959 to 1960.
  • 1949
    Age 32
    Roger Peperty, the French chef de cercle of Natitingou and a close acquaintance, encouraged Maga to form an alliance among northerners in early 1949.
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  • 1947
    Age 30
    Following his election to the Dahomey General Council in 1947, Maga resigned his teaching post.
    He was elected to Dahomey's territorial assembly in 1947 and founded the Northern Ethnical Group, later renamed the Dahomey Democratic Rally (Rassemblement Démocratique du Dahomé).
  • TWENTIES
  • 1945
    Age 28
    Maga was elected a general adviser for the Atakora region in 1945, and, two years later, was appointed to the Grand Council of French West Africa, in which he served until 1952.
    Maga was appointed director of the school in 1945.
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  • 1939
    Age 22
    In 1939, he married a fellow Christian, a nurse by profession, and the daughter of a prominent Brazilian of Fon origins from Ouidah.
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  • TEENAGE
  • 1935
    Age 18
    In his twenties Maga converted to Roman Catholicism which, according to journalist Ronald Matthews, "was not so common for a northerner". He became a teacher at Natitingou in 1935.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1916
    Born
    Born a peasant in 1916, Maga served as a schoolmaster from 1936 to 1945, during which time he gradually gained considerable influence among the uneducated.
    Maga was born on August 10 or August 19, 1916 to a peasant family in Parakou, northern Dahomey.
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