Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy

Prime Minister of Pakistan Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy

Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy was a Pakistani left-wing statesman of Bengali origin, and one of the principal of modern-day Pakistan. Appointed as the fifth Prime minister of Pakistan in 1956, Suhrawardy headed Pakistan until 1957, and was a close associate of Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan, first Prime minister of Pakistan.
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  • 1963
    He had been a chronic heart patient and died in Lebanon in 1963 due to a cardiac arrest.
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  • 1957
    His tenure saw the enhancement of the relations with the United States in July 1957, when President Dwight Eisenhower requested prime minister Suhrawardy to allow the US to establish a secret intelligence facility in Pakistan and for the U-2 spyplane to fly from Pakistan.
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  • 1956
    Just within a year of assuming the government, Suhrawardy was in a middle confrontation with the business community and the private-sector in 1956.
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    It was Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy's premiership when Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) was established by a Parliamentary Act of 1956.
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    In 1956, Suhrawardy announced the nation's first ever nuclear policy, but only benefiting the West-Pakistan, and adpoted the parliamentary act of 1956.
    He was also the first Pakistani Prime Minister to visit China in 1956 and the delegation included Professor Ahmed Ali, Pakistan's First Envoy to China (1951–52) who had established the Pakistani embassy in Peking and formed Pak-China friendship and strengthened the official diplomatic friendship between Pakistan and China, a friendship that Henry Kissinger would later use to make his now-famous secret trip to China in July 1971.
    His contribution in formulating the 1956 constitution of Pakistan was substantial as he played a vital role in incorporating provisions for civil liberties and universal adult franchise in line with his adherence to parliamentary form of liberal democracy.
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    The constitutionally obliged, the National Finance Commission Program (NFC Program), was immediately suspended by Prime Minister Suhrawardy despite the reserves of the four provinces of the West Pakistan in 1956.
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    Amid political disturbances, massive labour strikes, and civil disorder instigated at the behest of right-wing and left-wing parties, Suhrawardy was forced to halt the One Unit and finally abandoning the controversial sections of One Unit in 1956.
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    In 1956, Suhrawardy won the slot of Prime minister and was hastily appointed as fifth Prime Minister by President Iskander Mirza after the surprise resignation of Chaudhry Muhammad Ali.
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  • 1954
    The One Unit was a controversial geopolitical programme implemented to consolidate the political authority, retained by four provinces, to federal capital in 1954. By the time Suhrawardy was the Prime Minister, an intense political competition between rightist Muslim League and the centrist Republican Party was forming regarding this issue. The politics over this issue was chaotic when the four provinces engaged in a political struggle to the reversal of the One Unit which established West Pakistan in 1955.
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  • 1951
    The couple divorced in 1951 and had one child, Rashid Suhrawardy (aka Robert Ashby), who is an actor living in London (he played Jawaharlal Nehru in film Jinnah).
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  • 1947
    In 1947, the balance of power in Calcutta shifted from the Muslim League to the Indian National Congress, and Suhrawardy stepped down from the Chief Ministership.
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  • 1946
    Suhrawardy has left a controversial legacy in post-independent India. He is perceived as responsible for unleashing, at Jinnah's behest, the Direct Action Day in August 1946 which killed thousands.
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    In 1946, Suhrawardy established and headed a Muslim League government in Bengal.
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  • 1943
    He was the Minister responsible during the Midnapore (Bengal) famine of 1943, but did little to relieve it.
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  • 1940
    In 1940 Suhrawardy married Vera Alexandrovna Tiscenko Calder, who, after her conversion to Islam had changed her name to Begum Noor Jehan.
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    Ahmed Suhrawardy died from pneumonia whilst he was a student in London in 1940.
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  • 1925
    However, following the death of Chittaranjan Das in 1925, he began to disassociate himself with the Swaraj Party and eventually joined Muslim League.
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  • 1924
    Suhrawardy became the Deputy Mayor of the Calcutta Corporation at the age of 31 in 1924, and the Deputy Leader of the Swaraj Party in the Provincial Assembly.
  • 1923
    He played a major role in signing the Bengal Pact in 1923.
  • 1921
    Suhrawardy returned to the subcontinent in 1921 as a practising barrister of the Calcutta High Court.
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  • 1920
    In 1920, Suhrawardy married Begum Niaz Fatima, daughter of Sir Abdur Rahim, the then home minister of the Bengal Province of British India and later President of India's Central Legislative Assembly.
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  • 1913
    In 1913, he gained MA in Arabic language and won a scholarship to proceed his education abroad.
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  • 1910
    Suhrawardy attended the St. Xavier's College, where he obtained BS in Mathematics in 1910, later he was admitted at the department of arts of the University of Calcutta.
  • 1892
    Suhrawardy was born on 8 September 1892 to a Bengali Muslim family in the town of Midnapore, now in West Bengal.
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