Lyndon B. Johnson

President of the United States Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson, often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969), a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President of the United States (1961–1963). He is one of only four people who served in all four elected federal offices of the United States: Representative, Senator, Vice President, and President.
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OPINION; If Obama Is a One-Term President
NYTimes - over 6 years
Princeton, N.J. ''I'D rather be a really good one-term president than a mediocre two-term president,'' President Obama confessed to ABC News' Diane Sawyer last year. Other than the ''really good'' part, Republicans would be happy to see this wish fulfilled. With waning approval ratings and a stagnant economy, the possibility that Mr. Obama will not
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Seattle: $20 Million Grant Creates 14 "Green" Jobs - The New American
Google News - over 6 years
(In his famous October 27, 1964 speech in behalf of presidential candidate Barry Goldwater, Ronald Reagan noted that Lyndon Johnson's "War on Poverty" proposed job training camps "that we're going to spend each year just on room and board for each
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Penobscot Job Corps Academy Holds Student Showcase - WABI
Google News - over 6 years
On August 30, 1964 President Lyndon Johnson signed the Economic Opportunity Act creating Job Corps. The Penobscot Job Corps Academy held a ceremony to highlight its programs that help shape students' lives. "It's a second chance and we really are an
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Elks, Royal Purple travel to Gander - Nanton News
Google News - over 6 years
Front row: Shelley Townrow, Bill Ward, Bernie Johnson, Gwenn Broomfield, Maureen Loven, Mel and Bev DePaoli, and Lyndon Johnson. On July 18-19, the Stavely Elks and Royal Purple travelled to Gander, Newfoundland for the national convention
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Roof collapse at Long Branch apartment building - Asbury Park Press
Google News - over 6 years
“There were no injuries,” Long Branch Lt. Lyndon Johnson said. From 10 to 12 residents were evacuated. Johnson said downed trees throughout the city has led to the closure of many roadways. A mandatory no-drive order remains in place, he said
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Democrats to celebrate LBJ birthday - Newstreamz San Marcos
Google News - over 6 years
But in a lifetime marked by the insatiable pursuit of power, Johnson also escalated the Vietnam War, stole elections and treated his wife and others with astonishing cruelty, according to “The Years of Lyndon Johnson,” an acclaimed biography by Robert
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Jackie Kennedy blamed Lyndon B Johnson for JFK Murder - Irish Central
Google News - over 6 years
ABC executives have confirmed that the revelations in the tapes are 'explosive' with Jackie Kennedy allegedly blaming President Lyndon Johnson for the death of JFK. It is believed the tapes also include the suggestion that President Kennedy was having ... -
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At Age 46, Is Medicare Ripe For A Change? - Kaiser Health News
Google News - over 6 years
Medicare, the federal entitlement program for the elderly and disabled, was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson 46 years ago this week. Changes to the program, such as raising its eligibility age or
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Feds' shortcut to closing wealth gap backfired on minority homeowners - Orlando Sentinel
Google News - over 6 years
Nearly 50 years after President Lyndon Johnson began the War on Poverty, we are as impoverished as ever. There are various reasons. But a big one is this: The federal government turned home ownership into an affirmative-action program, complete with
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Obama's day: Still waiting - USA Today (blog)
Google News - over 6 years
On this day in 1967, President Lyndon Johnson appointed the Kerner Commission to investigate the causes of racial turmoil in the USA. Today, President Obama and aides again wait for Congress to find some kind of agreement on the debt, less than a week
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Walter Reed closing its doors after 102 years - Washington Post (blog)
Google News - over 6 years
Lyndon Johnson and Everett Dirksen. Nixon spent two weeks at Walter Reed recovering from a bacterial staph infection. (AP via Walter Reed Army Medical Center) After more than a century of treating the war's wounded and Washington's most powerful people ... -
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Tribute Day held in honor of Lady Bird Johnson - KVUE
Google News - over 6 years
It was July 26th, 1968 when President Lyndon Johnson presented Lady Bird with 50 pens he used to sign environmental bills inspired by her work. Mrs. Johnson helped pass "Lady Bird's bill," or the Highway Beautification Act of 1965
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Lyndon B. Johnson
    CHILDHOOD
  • 1973
    The Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston was renamed the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in 1973, and Texas created a legal state holiday to be observed on August 27 to mark Johnson's birthday.
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    With his condition now diagnosed as terminal, Johnson returned home to his ranch. At approximately 3:39pm Central Time on January 22, 1973, Johnson placed a call to the ranch's Secret Service compound complaining of "massive chest pains".
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  • 1972
    Johnson, who died two days after Richard Nixon's second inauguration, was the second former President to die within the span of two months at the time of his death. Former President Harry S. Truman, whose death made Johnson the only living former President, died less than a month before Johnson did, on December 26, 1972.
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    In April 1972, Johnson fell victim to a second heart attack while visiting his daughter, Lynda, in Charlottesville, Virginia. "I'm hurting real bad," he confided to friends.
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    During the 1972 presidential election, Johnson endorsed Democratic presidential nominee George S. McGovern, a senator from South Dakota, although McGovern had long opposed Johnson's foreign and defense policies.
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    At the time, this was also the widest popular margin in the 20th century—more than 15.95 million votes—this was later surpassed by incumbent President Nixon's victory in 1972.
  • 1970
    In March 1970, Johnson suffered an attack of angina and was taken to Brooke Army General Hospital on Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio.
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  • 1969
    On July 16, 1969, Johnson attended the launch of the first Moon landing mission Apollo 11, becoming the first former or incumbent US president to witness a rocket launch.
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    After leaving the presidency in January 1969, Johnson went home to his ranch in Stonewall, Texas, accompanied by former aide and speech writer Harry J. Middleton, who would draft Johnson's first book, The Choices We Face, and work with him on his memoirs entitled The Vantage Point: Perspectives of the Presidency 1963–1969, published in 1971.
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    After he left office in January 1969, Johnson returned to his Texas ranch where he died of a heart attack at age 64 on January 22, 1973.
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  • OTHER
  • 1968
    When Earl Warren announced his retirement in 1968, Johnson nominated Fortas to succeed him as Chief Justice of the United States, and nominated Homer Thornberry to succeed Fortas as Associate Justice.
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    In what was termed the October surprise, Johnson announced to the nation on October 31, 1968, that he had ordered a complete cessation of "all air, naval and artillery bombardment of North Vietnam", effective November 1, should the Hanoi Government be willing to negotiate and citing progress with the Paris peace talks.
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    After Robert Kennedy's assassination, Johnson rallied the party bosses and unions to give Humphrey the nomination at the 1968 Democratic National Convention.
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    Bennett, however, says Johnson "had been forced out of a reelection race in 1968 by outrage over his policy in Southeast Asia."
    As he had served less than 24 months of President Kennedy's term, Johnson was constitutionally permitted to run for a second full term in the 1968 presidential election under the provisions of the 22nd Amendment.
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    The biggest wave of riots came in April 1968 in over a hundred cities after the assassination of Martin Luther King. Newark burned in 1967, where six days of rioting left 26 dead, 1500 injured, and the inner city a burned out shell. In Detroit in 1967, Governor George Romney sent in 7400 national guard troops to quell fire bombings, looting, and attacks on businesses and on police.
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    Johnson agreed to increase the troop level by 22,000, despite a recommendation from the Joint Chiefs for ten times that number, By March 1968 Johnson was secretly desperate for an honorable way out of the war.
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    Thus by 1968, the public was polarized, with the "hawks" rejecting Johnson's refusal to continue the war indefinitely, and the "doves" rejecting his current war policies.
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    As casualties mounted and success seemed further away than ever, Johnson's popularity plummeted. College students and others protested, burned draft cards, and chanted, "Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?" Johnson could scarcely travel anywhere without facing protests, and was not allowed by the Secret Service to attend the 1968 Democratic National Convention, where thousands of hippies, yippies, Black Panthers and other opponents of Johnson's policies both in Vietnam and in the ghettos converged to protest.
    With the exception of George Ball, the "Wise Men" all agreed the administration should "press forward". Johnson was confident that Hanoi would await the 1968 US election results before deciding to negotiate.
    In March Robert Kennedy assumed a more public opposition to the war in a Senate speech. The fact of his opposition and probable candidacy for the presidency in 1968, according to Dallek, inhibited the embattled and embittered Johnson from employing a more realistic war policy.
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    The results were significant—between the years of 1968 and 1980, the number of southern black elected state and federal officeholders nearly doubled. The act also made a large difference in the numbers of black elected officials nationally—in 1965, a few hundred black office-holders mushroomed to 6,000 in 1989.
  • 1967
    One of the most unusual international trips in presidential history occurred before Christmas in 1967.
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    In a 1993 interview for the Johnson Presidential Library oral history archives, Johnson's Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara stated that a carrier battle group, the U.S. 6th Fleet, sent on a training exercise toward Gibraltar was re-positioned back towards the eastern Mediterranean to be able to assist Israel during the Six-Day War of June 1967.
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    By the middle of 1967 nearly 70,000 Americans had been killed or wounded in the war.
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    By year's end it was clear that current pacification efforts were ineffectual, as had been the air campaign. Johnson then agreed to McNamara's new recommendation to add 70,000 troops in 1967 to the 400,000 previously committed.
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    During Johnson's administration, NASA conducted the Gemini manned space program, developed the Saturn V rocket and its launch facility, and prepared to make the first manned Apollo program flights. On January 27, 1967, the nation was stunned when the entire crew of Apollo 1 was killed in a cabin fire during a spacecraft test on the launch pad, stopping Apollo in its tracks.
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  • 1966
    Lyndon Baines Johnson Tropical Medical Center is named after the 36th President who visited American Samoa on October 18, 1966.
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    In a discussion about the war with former President Dwight Eisenhower on October 3, 1966, Johnson said he was "trying to win it just as fast as I can in every way that I know how" and later stated that he needed "all the help I can get."
    Also in October 1966, to reassure and promote his war effort, Johnson initiated a meeting with allies in Manila—the South Vietnamese, Thais, South Koreans, Filipinos, Australians and New Zealanders.
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    Richard Russell, Chairman of the Armed Services Committee, reflected the national mood in June 1966, when he declared it was time to "get it over or get out".
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    In April 1966 Johnson was encouraged by statistics that the Viet Cong had suffered greater numbers of casualties than the South Vietnamese; at the same time, despite urgings in Honolulu to strengthen his internal affairs, Prime Minister Ky's administration was increasingly vulnerable to rebel forces.
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    The impetus for the law's passage came from the 1966 Chicago Open Housing Movement, the April 4, 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the civil unrest across the country following King's death.
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  • 1965
    At the end of 1965 after consultation with the joint Chiefs and other advisers Johnson decided to increase troops at the rate of 15,000 per month throughout 1966 rather than increasing them at one time, in order to avoid a more publicized increase.
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    On May 2, 1965 Johnson told congressional leaders that he wanted an additional $700 million for Vietnam and the Dominican Republic saying "each member of Congress who supports this request is voting to continue our effort to try to hold communist aggression".
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    In early 1965 Johnson sent U.S. Marines to the Dominican Republic to protect the embassy there and to respond to yet another perceived communist threat by the escalating civil war.
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    With the passage of the sweeping Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the country's immigration system was reformed and all national origins quotas dating from the 1920s were removed.
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  • 1964
    In the winter of 1964–65 Johnson was pressured by the military to begin a bombing campaign to forcefully resist a communist takeover in South Vietnam; moreover, a plurality in the polls at the time were in favor of military action against the communists, with only 26 to 30 percent opposed.
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    In the 1964 presidential campaign, he restated his determination to provide measured support for Vietnam while avoiding another Korea; but privately he had a sense of foreboding about Vietnam—a feeling that no matter what he did things would end badly.
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    Johnson in late summer 1964 seriously questioned the value of staying in Vietnam but, after meeting with Secretary of State Dean Rusk and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Maxwell D. Taylor, declared his readiness "to do more when we had a base" or when Saigon was politically more stable.
    He expanded the numbers and roles of the American military following the Gulf of Tonkin Incident soon after the Republican Convention of 1964.
    By year's end, the Democratic governor of Missouri, Warren E. Hearnes, warned that Johnson would lose the state by 100,000 votes, despite winning by a 500,000 margin in 1964. "Frustration over Vietnam; too much federal spending and... taxation; no great public support for your Great Society programs; and... public disenchantment with the civil rights programs" had eroded the President's standing, the governor reported.
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    In 1964, at Johnson's request, Congress passed the Revenue Act of 1964 and the Economic Opportunity Act, as part of the war on poverty.
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    He was reticent to push southern congressmen even further after passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and suspected their support may have been temporarily tapped out.
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    On September 7, 1964, Johnson's campaign managers broadcast the "Daisy ad".
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    Early in the 1964 presidential campaign, Barry Goldwater appeared to be a strong contender, with strong support from the South, which threatened Johnson's position as he had predicted in reaction to the passage of the Civil Rights Act.
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    In Spring 1964, Johnson did not look optimistically upon the prospect of being elected president in his own right.
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    Although Johnson very much wanted to keep discussions about Vietnam out of the 1964 election campaign, he felt forced to respond to the supposed aggression by the Vietnamese, so he sought and obtained from the Congress the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on August 7.
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    Richard Goodwin tweaked it—to "The Great Society"—and incorporated this in detail as part of a speech for Johnson in May 1964 at the University of Michigan. It encompassed movements of urban renewal, modern transportation, clean environment, anti-poverty, healthcare reform, crime control, and educational reform. In August 1964, allegations arose from the military that two US destroyers had been attacked by some North Vietnamese torpedo boats in international waters from the Vietnamese coast in the Gulf of Tonkin; naval communications and reports of the attack were contradictory.
    Johnson wanted a catchy slogan for the 1964 campaign to describe his proposed domestic agenda for 1965.
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    Johnson signed the fortified Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law on July 2.
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    According to Caro, it was ultimately Johnson's ability to convince Republican leader Everett Dirksen to support the bill that amassed the necessary Republican votes to overcome the filibuster in March 1964; after 75 hours of debate, the bill passed the senate by a vote of 71–29.
    In March 1964, LBJ sent to Congress the Economic Opportunity Act, which created the Job Corps and the Community Action Program, designed to attack poverty locally. The act also created VISTA, Volunteers in Service to America, a domestic counterpart to the Peace Corps. President Kennedy had submitted a civil-rights bill to Congress in June 1963, which was met with strong opposition.
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    The new president thought it advantageous to quickly pursue one of Kennedy's primary legislative goals—a tax cut. Johnson worked closely with Harry F. Byrd of Virginia to negotiate a reduction in the budget below $100 billion in exchange for what became overwhelming Senate approval of the Revenue Act of 1964.
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    George Reedy, who was Johnson's second-longest-serving aide, assumed the post of press secretary when John F. Kennedy's own Pierre Salinger left that post in March 1964.
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    Johnson retained senior Kennedy appointees, some for the full term of his presidency. He even retained Robert Kennedy as Attorney General, with whom he had a notoriously difficult relationship. Robert Kennedy remained in office for a few months until leaving in 1964 to run for the Senate.
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    The negative publicity from the affair fed rumors in Washington circles that Kennedy was planning on dropping Johnson from the Democratic ticket in the upcoming 1964 presidential election.
    He resigned from the Navy Reserve effective January 18, 1964.
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  • 1963
    On November 29, 1963 just one week after Kennedy's assassination, Johnson issued an executive order to rename NASA's Apollo Launch Operations Center and the NASA/Air Force Cape Canaveral launch facilities as the John F. Kennedy Space Center.
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    Johnson was quickly sworn in as President on the Air Force One plane in Dallas on November 22, 1963, just 2 hours and 8 minutes after John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, amid suspicions of a conspiracy against the government.
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    Two years and ten months later, on November 22, 1963, Johnson succeeded Kennedy as President following the latter's assassination.
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    However, on October 31, 1963, a reporter asked if he intended and expected to have Johnson on the ticket the following year.
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    Johnson was touched by a Senate scandal in August 1963 when Bobby Baker, the Secretary to the Majority Leader of the Senate and a protégé of Johnson's, came under investigation by the Senate Rules Committee for allegations of bribery and financial malfeasance.
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  • 1961
    Kennedy also appointed Johnson Chairman of the National Aeronautics Space Council. The Soviets beat the US with the first manned spaceflight in April 1961, and Kennedy gave Johnson the task of evaluating the state of the US space program and recommending a project that would allow the US to catch up or beat the Soviets.
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    His lack of influence was thrown into relief later in 1961 when Kennedy appointed Johnson's friend Sarah T. Hughes to a federal judgeship, whereas Johnson had tried and failed to garner the nomination for Hughes at the beginning of his vice presidency.
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    Fellow Democrat William A. Blakley was appointed to replace Johnson as Senator, but Blakley lost a special election in May 1961 to Tower.
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    When he won the vice presidency, he made arrangements to resign from the Senate, as he was required to do under federal law, as soon as it convened on January 3, 1961." (In 1988, Lloyd Bentsen, the Vice Presidential running mate of Democratic presidential candidate Michael Dukakis, and also a Senator from Texas, took advantage of "Lyndon's law," and was able to retain his seat in the Senate despite Dukakis' loss to George H. W. Bush.)
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    Johnson was sworn in as Vice President on January 20, 1961.
  • 1960
    At the same time as his Vice Presidential run, Johnson also sought a third term in the U.S. Senate. According to Robert Caro, "On November 8, 1960, Lyndon Johnson won election for both the vice presidency of the United States, on the Kennedy-Johnson ticket, and for a third term as Senator (he had Texas law changed to allow him to run for both offices).
    Johnson's late entry into the campaign in July 1960, coupled with a reluctance to leave Washington, allowed the rival Kennedy campaign to secure a substantial early advantage among Democratic state party officials.
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    Johnson ran for the Democratic nomination in the 1960 presidential election.
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  • 1959
    Jim Rowe repeatedly urged Johnson to launch a campaign in early 1959, but Johnson thought it better to wait, thinking that John Kennedy's efforts would create a division in the ranks which could then be exploited.
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  • 1956
    Johnson's success in the Senate rendered him a potential Democratic presidential candidate; he had been the "favorite son" candidate of the Texas delegation at the Party's national convention in 1956, and appeared to be in a strong position to run for the 1960 nomination.
  • 1955
    A 60-cigarette-per-day smoker, Johnson suffered a near-fatal heart attack on July 2, 1955.
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  • 1954
    In the 1954 election, Johnson was re-elected to the Senate, and since the Democrats won the majority in the Senate, Johnson then became majority leader.
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  • 1953
    In January 1953, Johnson was chosen by his fellow Democrats to be the minority leader; he became the most junior Senator ever elected to this position.
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  • 1950
    After the 1950 general elections, Johnson was chosen as Senate Majority Whip in 1951 under the new Majority Leader, Ernest McFarland of Arizona, and served from 1951 to 1953.
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    Johnson was appointed to the Senate Armed Services Committee, and later in 1950, he helped create the Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee.
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  • 1948
    In the 1948 elections, Johnson again ran for the Senate and won in a highly controversial result in a three-way Democratic Party primary.
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  • 1942
    He was released from active duty on July 17, 1942.
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    On June 9, 1942, Johnson volunteered as an observer for an air strike mission on New Guinea by eleven B-26 bombers that included his roommate in another plane.
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    In the spring of 1942, President Roosevelt needed his own reports on what conditions were like in the Southwest Pacific.
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  • 1941
    While serving as a U.S. congressman, he was called to active duty three days after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941.
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  • 1940
    Johnson was appointed a Lieutenant Commander in the U.S. Naval Reserve on June 21, 1940.
  • 1937
    He served in the House from April 10, 1937, to January 3, 1949.
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    In 1937, Johnson successfully campaigned in a special election for Texas's 10th congressional district, that covered Austin and the surrounding hill country.
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  • 1935
    In 1935, he was appointed head of the Texas National Youth Administration, which enabled him to use the government to create education and job opportunities for young people.
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  • 1934
    Johnson married Claudia Alta Taylor, also known as "Lady Bird", of Karnack, Texas on November 17, 1934, after he attended Georgetown University Law Center for several months.
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  • 1930
    After teaching in Houston, Johnson entered politics; in 1930, he campaigned for Texas State Senator Welly Hopkins in his run for Congress.
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    The job helped him to save money to complete his education, and he graduated in 1930.
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  • 1928
    For nine months, from 1928 to 1929, Johnson paused his studies to teach Mexican-American children at the segregated Welhausen School in Cotulla, some south of San Antonio in La Salle County.
  • 1926
    In 1926, Johnson enrolled at SWTSTC (now Texas State University).
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  • 1924
    He enrolled in Southwest Texas State Teachers College (SWTSTC) in the summer of 1924, where students from unaccredited high schools could take the 12th-grade courses needed for admission to SWTSTC at San Marcos.
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  • 1908
    Lyndon Baines Johnson was born on August 27, 1908, in Stonewall, Texas, in a small farmhouse on the Pedernales River, the oldest of five children born to Samuel Ealy Johnson Jr. (1877 - 1937) and Rebekah Baines (1881 - 1958).
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