Margaret Murray

British Egyptologist Margaret Murray

Margaret Alice Murray was a prominent British Egyptologist and anthropologist. Primarily known for her work in Egyptology, which was "the core of her academic career," she is also known for her propagation of the Witch-cult hypothesis, the theory that the witch trials in the Early Modern period of Christianized Europe and North America were an attempt to extinguish a surviving pre-Christian, pagan religion devoted to a Horned God.
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Biography
Margaret Murray's personal information overview.
Birthday
13 July 1863
home town
Indian Empire
Death Place
Welwyn

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Rochester dance studio offers nourishment for the sole - Foster's Daily Democrat
Google News - over 6 years
It's a good balance between working hard and having fun, according to Margaret Murray, whose daughter Abigail attends the school. The school is predominantly female, but it also strives to break down gender stigmas. About 10 percent of their hip hop
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Musical programs, peace program and other events - St. Augustine Record
Google News - over 6 years
For further information call Malinda Peeples, 692-2307 or 806-3939; or Margaret Murray, 692-3561. * Angel food ministries, a nationwide organization with a mission to extinguish hunger throughout the United States is offering a variety of foods at
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Wright Family Reunion Oct. 15 - Rockbridge Weekly
Google News - over 6 years
Robert Daniel & Margaret Murray Wright: Willie Josephine & Joshua Reitzel, Henry Deskins Wright, Lacy Monroe Wright, Earl Hicks Wright,,Ether E. Wright, Arthur Glen Wright, Callie Danie Wright Minor, Allene & Eli Martin Greene
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The ballot and black women - Daily Kos
Google News - over 6 years
Founders of the NACWC included Harriet Tubman, Margaret Murray Washington, Frances EW Harper, Ida Bell Wells-Barnett, and Mary Church Terrell. Its two leading members were Josephine Ruffin and Mary Church Terrell. Their original intention was "to
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SEA event scheduled for Monday - St. Augustine Record
Google News - over 6 years
For further information contact Malinda Peeples, 692-2307 or 806-3939; or Margaret Murray, 692-3561. * Restoration Time Deliverance Center, Food Outreach Operation Distribution (FOOD) caring hands food will be available on the fourth Saturday in August
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Россия: Есть ли у программы "Анонимные алкоголики" шанс на успех в России? - EurasiaNet.org
Google News - over 6 years
Как рассказала членам Хельсинкской комиссии директор международной научно-исследовательской программы Национального института США по исследованию алкогольной зависимости и алкоголизма Маргарет Мюррей (Margaret Murray), "движение "Анонимные алкоголики"
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Russia: Can the AA 12-Step Program Thrive in Russia? - EurasiaNet
Google News - over 6 years
Margaret Murray, the director of the International Research Program at the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, told members of the Helsinki Commission that AA “has been an extremely important mainstay of [alcoholism] treatment in the
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International Cultural Exchange Services seeks host families for foreign ... - Green Bay Press Gazette
Google News - over 6 years
For more information, contact ICES Regional Administrator Margaret Murray at (608) 548-2787, or email her at mmurray @icesusa.org, or contact the local area representative, Trudy Lervolino, at (920) 216-5891
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The following students made the superintendent's honor roll for the fourth ... - Annapolis Capital
Google News - over 6 years
... Conor McManamon, Megan Meade, Benjamin MeKeal, Ronald Mentzer, Kayla Messinese, Casi Mewborn, Jennifer Milligan, Danielle Minor, Alexander Molster, Rachel Mondi, Rachel Monias, Margaret Murray, Haley Muse, Sarah Myers, Kylie Myles, Hannah Naegeli,
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Rogue River's Wolvin takes home gold at senior games - Mail Tribune
Google News - over 6 years
55-and-older squad along with Margaret Murray, Mary Lutkenhaus, Sarah McNeil, Melanie Morton, Jana Skladan, Lubo Skladan and Carol Stevenson. The team sealed its gold success by beating Beach Biddies of Virginia 25-15, 18-25, 15-7, and Beat Volley of
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Ronald L. Marli - Pike County Courier
Google News - over 6 years
He was married to Margaret (Murray) Marli in 1965 in Staten Island. Survivors include his wife; son Ronald L. Marli, Jr. of Brooklyn, NY; daughter Tara Ann Marli of Tulsa, Okla., two brothers Robert Marli of Scottsdale, Ariz., and Thomas Marli of
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School days at Linton Camp set to be relived on stage - Bradford Telegraph and Argus
Google News - over 6 years
Margaret Murray, 83, of Wyke, spent two years at the school after being evacuated there from her home in Girlington in 1940 aged 12. She said: “We got homesick at times, but there was so much going on, they kept us busy. “It was beautiful there
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Religious Notes - St. Augustine Record
Google News - over 6 years
For further information contact Malinda Peeples, 692-2307 or 806-3939; or Margaret Murray, 692-3561. "Pen Dragon: Sword of His Father," a movie described as having "action galore and a strong message of hope" will be shown from 6 to 10 pm Saturday at
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Olsen Sees Mixed Results At Assessment - Patch.com
Google News - over 6 years
Olsen's second “Needing Improvement” score in the performance portion of the evaluation came from Margaret Murray came during an assessment of Olsen's communication practices. In this instance, Murray also noted the food safety concerns regarding the
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Police visited nightclub 20 times in a month - expressandstar.com
Google News - over 6 years
Gatecrasher in Birmingham was the regional hotspot for police calls, clocking up 272 recorded visits in 2010, according to figures released under the Freedom of Information Act. Gatecrasher spokeswoman Margaret Murray today said she believed the
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Change In Expulsion Policy Approved On Monday - Patch.com
Google News - over 6 years
School Committee member Margaret Murray appeared to be the largest proponent of the policy change, citing several concerns ranging from a lack of information regarding statistics on exclusionary disciplines versus statistics on expulsions and a recent
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Margaret Murray
    LATE ADULTHOOD
  • 1963
    Age 99
    Murray's work was increasingly criticised following her death in 1963, with the definitive academic rejection of the Murrayite witch-cult theory occurring during the 1970s.
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    To mark her hundredth birthday, on 13 July 1963 a group of her friends, former students, and doctors gathered for a party at nearby Ayot St. Lawrence.
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  • 1962
    Age 98
    Amid failing health, in 1962 Murray moved into the Queen Victoria Memorial Hospital in Welwyn, Hertfordshire, where she could receive 24-hour care; she lived here for the final 18 months of her life.
  • 1961
    Age 97
    For the autumn 1961 issue of Folklore, the society published a festschrift to Murray to commemorate her 98th birthday.
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  • 1960
    Age 96
    In 1960, she donated her collection of papers – including correspondences with a wide range of individuals across the country – to the Folklore Society Archive, where it is now known as "the Murray Collection".
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  • 1957
    Age 93
    In May 1957, Murray had championed the archaeologist Thomas Charles Lethbridge's controversial claims that he had discovered three pre-Christian chalk hill figures on Wandlebury Hill in the Gog Magog Downs, Cambridgeshire.
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  • 1955
    Age 91
    Murray remained President for two terms, until 1955.
  • 1954
    Age 90
    In her 1954 presidential address, "England as a Field for Folklore Research", she lamented what she saw as the English people's disinterest in their own folklore in favour of that from other nations.
  • 1953
    Age 89
    In 1953, Murray was appointed to the presidency of the Folklore Society following the resignation of former president Allan Gomme.
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    She served as President of the Folklore Society from 1953 to 1955, and published widely over the course of her career.
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  • 1949
    Age 85
    Murray's interest in popularising Egyptology among the wider public continued; in 1949 she published Ancient Egyptian Religious Poetry, her second work for John Murray's "The Wisdom of the East" series.
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  • 1937
    Age 73
    Intrigued by the site, in March and April 1937 she returned in order to carry out a small excavation in several cave dwellings at the site, subsequently writing both an excavation report and a guidebook on Petra.
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  • 1935
    Age 71
    The historian Philip Heselton suggested that the New Forest coven – the oldest alleged Wiccan group – was founded circa 1935 by esotericists aware of Murray's theory and who may have believed themselves to be reincarnated witch-cult members.
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    During Murray's 1935 trip to Palestine, she had taken the opportunity to visit Petra in neighbouring Jordan.
    The journal folded in 1935, perhaps due to Murray's retirement.
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  • 1933
    Age 69
    In 1933, Petrie had retired from UCL and moved to Jerusalem in Mandatory Palestine with his wife; Murray therefore took over as editor of the Ancient Egypt journal, renaming it Ancient Egypt and the East to reflect its increasing research interest in the ancient societies that surrounded and interacted with Egypt.
  • 1927
    Age 63
    Although having reached legal retirement age in 1927, and thus unable to be offered another five-year contract, Murray was reappointed on an annual basis each year until 1935.
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    Murray joined the Folklore Society in February 1927, and was elected to the society's council a month later, although stood down in 1929.
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  • 1924
    Age 60
    In 1924, UCL promoted Murray – then aged sixty-two – to the position of assistant professor, and in 1927 she was awarded an honorary doctorate for her career in Egyptology.
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  • FIFTIES
  • 1921
    Age 57
    From 1921 to 1927, Murray led archaeological excavations on Malta, assisted by Edith Guest and Gertrude Caton Thompson.
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    She articulated these views more fully in her 1921 book The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, published by Oxford University Press after receiving a positive peer review by Henry Balfour, and which received both criticism and support on publication.
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  • 1917
    Age 53
    Murray's interest in folklore led her to develop an interest in the witch trials of Early Modern Europe. In 1917, she published a paper in Folklore, the journal of the Folklore Society, in which she first articulated her version of the witch-cult theory, arguing that the witches persecuted in European history were actually followers of "a definite religion with beliefs, ritual, and organization as highly developed as that of any cult in the end".
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  • 1916
    Age 52
    It was at Seligman's recommendation that she was invited to become a member of the Institute in 1916.
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  • FORTIES
  • 1911
    Age 47
    From at least 1911 until his death in 1940, Murray was a close friend of the anthropologist Charles Gabriel Seligman of the London School of Economics, and together they co-authored a variety of papers on Egyptology that were aimed at an anthropological audience.
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  • 1905
    Age 41
    Murray was dedicated to public education, hoping to infuse Egyptomania with solid scholarship about Ancient Egypt, and to this end authored a series of books aimed at a general audience. In 1905 she published Elementary Egyptian Grammar which was followed in 1911 by Elementary Coptic (Sahidic) Grammar.
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    She published her findings in 1905 as Saqqara Mastabas I, although would not publish translations of the inscriptions until 1937 as Saqqara Mastabas II.
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  • THIRTIES
  • 1903
    Age 39
    During the 1903–04 field season, Murray returned to Egypt, and at Petrie's instruction began her investigations at the Saqqara cemetery near to Cairo, which dated from the period of the Old Kingdom.
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  • 1902
    Age 38
    At this point, Murray had no experience in field archaeology, and so during the 1902–03 field season, she travelled to Egypt to join Petrie's excavations at Abydos.
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  • 1898
    Age 34
    In 1898 she was appointed to the position of Junior Lecturer, responsible for teaching the linguistic courses at the Egyptology department; this made her the first female lecturer in archaeology in the United Kingdom.
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  • 1895
    Age 31
    Murray soon got to know Petrie, becoming his copyist and illustrator and producing the drawings for the published report on his excavations at Qift, Koptos. In turn, he aided and encouraged her to write her first research paper, "The Descent of Property in the Early Periods of Egyptian History", which was published in the Proceedings of the Society for Biblical Archaeology in 1895.
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  • 1894
    Age 30
    Murray began her studies at UCL at age 30 in January 1894, as part of a class composed largely of other women and older men.
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  • TWENTIES
  • 1893
    Age 29
    In 1893 she then travelled to Madras, Tamil Nadu, where her sister had moved to with her new husband.
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  • 1891
    Age 27
    When her father retired and moved to England, she moved into his house in Bushey Heath, Hertfordshire, living with him until his death in 1891.
  • 1887
    Age 23
    In 1887, she returned to England, moving to Rugby, Warwickshire, where her uncle John had moved, now widowed.
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  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1873
    Age 9
    In 1873, the girls' mother arrived in Europe and took them with her to Bonn in Germany, where they both became fluent in German.
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  • 1870
    Age 6
    In 1870, Margaret and her sister Mary were sent to Britain, there moving in with their uncle John, a vicar, and his wife Harriet at their home in Lambourn, Berkshire.
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  • 1863
    Born
    Margaret Murray was born on 13 July 1863 in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, then a major military city in British India.
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Original Authors of this text are noted here.
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