Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Second Iranian Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Mohammad Rezā Shāh Pahlavī was the Shah of Persia from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi of the Iranian monarchy. At present, he is regarded as the last King of Iran. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi held several titles: His Imperial Majesty, Shahanshah (King of Kings, Emperor), Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) and Bozorg Arteshtārān .
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Biography
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's personal information overview.
Deceased
27 July 1980

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NATIONAL BRIEFING | NEW ENGLAND; Massachusetts: Shah's Son Found Dead
NYTimes - about 7 years
The youngest son of the former shah of Iran was found dead Tuesday in his Boston apartment, according to his brother's Web site. Prince Alireza Pahlavi ''struggled for years to overcome his sorrow'' and ''in his Boston residence, took his own life, plunging his family and friends into great sorrow,'' said a note on the Web site of his brother Reza
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POLITICUS; Oil at Heart of Dispute Over Iran
NYTimes - about 8 years
PARIS -- Thirty-one years ago this week -- Jan. 16, 1979 -- the shah of Iran flew into exile, opening the way to the birth of an Islamic republic and, over time, a country whose leaders have shaken much of world with their apocalyptic threats and drive for nuclear weapons. For sure, demonstrations, shootings and massive repression brought a picture
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Ideas & Trends: Iran and Guatemala, 1953-54; Revisiting Cold War Coups and Finding Them Costly
NYTimes - about 14 years
SOON after the C.I.A. installed him as president of Guatemala in 1954, Col. Carlos Castillo Armas visited Washington. He was unusually forthright with Vice President Richard M. Nixon. ''Tell me what you want me to do,'' he said, ''and I will do it.'' What the United States wanted in Guatemala -- and in Iran, where the C.I.A. also deposed a
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Cars Seized After Iran's Revolt Find Home and Showroom
NYTimes - over 14 years
Museum guides like to say that the rare Mercedes-Benz 500 K carried Hitler to review his troops. They know that the Rolls-Royce Phantom IV was built to be bulletproof, ordered by a safety-minded Shah Reza Pahlavi after an assassination attempt against his son. These two automobiles are among about 40 classic cars seized after the Islamic revolution
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Iran's Failed Revolution
NYTimes - about 15 years
Few Iranians have been celebrating the 24th anniversary of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's Islamic revolution this month. It is easy to understand why. A movement that once brought millions into the streets demanding freedom from the shah's dictatorship has gone on to oppress its young, disillusion its middle-aged veterans and silence even grand
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Hard-Liners Put Iranian Journalist on Trial on Spying Charges
NYTimes - almost 16 years
A 73-year-old former journalist has gone on trial behind closed doors, charged with espionage and threatening national security in what is considered part of a new current of repression against intellectuals in Iran. The former journalist, Siamak Pourzand, director of the Artistic and Cultural Complex in Tehran, was arrested late last year by the
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A NATION CHALLENGED: AN INVESTIGATION; As Actor's Film Wins Raves, His Identity Attracts Scrutiny
NYTimes - about 16 years
A fugitive in the political assassination of an Iranian exile leader here has turned up 22 years later as an actor in ''Kandahar,'' a fictitious and highly praised new Iranian movie about Taliban oppression in Afghanistan, the Montgomery County state's attorney said today. ''It's him, there's no doubt,'' State's Attorney Douglas F. Gansler said of
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Princess Soraya, 69, Shah's Wife Whom He Shed for Lack of Heir
NYTimes - over 16 years
Princess Soraya Esfandiari Bakhtiari, the second wife of the former shah of Iran, has died in Paris, a former Iranian official close to the family said today. She was 69. She died in her Paris apartment, according to a former minister of the shah, A. M. Madjidi. The cause and day of death were unclear. The princess was born on June 22, 1932, to a
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Persepolis Journal; Shah's Tent City, Fit for Kings, May Lodge Tourists
NYTimes - over 16 years
The place will probably not be called The Shah's Motel. But the extravagant tents that Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi erected here 30 years ago for a lavish -- some say unhinged -- celebration marking the 2,500th anniversary of the first Persian empire are to be restored, probably for tourists. The 50 tents, which once had marble bathrooms, the finest
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Leila Pahlavi Is Dead at 31; Youngest Daughter of Shah of Iran
NYTimes - over 16 years
Leila Pahlavi, a daughter of the Shah of Iran, died in her sleep Sunday night in London, her mother, Queen Farah, said today. She was 31. Queen Farah, who lives in Paris, did not make public the cause of death. ''For the past few years, Leila has been very depressed,'' she said. ''Time had not healed her wounds. Exiled at the age of 9, she never
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
    LATE ADULTHOOD
  • 1980
    Age 60
    After that event, the Shah again sought the support of Egyptian president Anwar El-Sadat, who renewed his offer of permanent asylum in Egypt to the ailing monarch. He returned to Egypt in March 1980, where he received urgent medical treatment, including a splenectomy performed by Michael DeBakey. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi died from complications of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma) on 27 July 1980, aged 60.
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  • FIFTIES
  • 1979
    Age 59
    On 17 October 1979, again in exile and perhaps knowing the gravity of his illness, he split up his wealth between his family members, giving 20% to Farah, 20% to his eldest son Reza, 15% to Farahnaz, 15% to Leila, 20% to his younger son, in addition to giving 8% to Shahnaz and 2% to his granddaughter Mahnaz Zahedi.
    He left the United States on 15 December 1979 and lived for a short time in the Isla Contadora in Panama.
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    On 22 October 1979, President Jimmy Carter reluctantly allowed the Shah into the United States to undergo surgical treatment at the New York–Weill Cornell Medical Hospital.
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    Richard Nixon, the former president, visited the Shah in summer 1979 in Mexico.
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    On 14 January 1979, an article titled "Little pain expected in exile for Shah" by The Spokesman Review newspaper found that the Pahlavi dynasty had amassed one of the largest private fortunes in the world; estimated then at well over $1 billion.
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    On 16 January 1979, he made a contract with Farboud and left Iran at the behest of Prime Minister Shapour Bakhtiar (a longtime opposition leader himself), who sought to calm the situation.
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  • 1978
    Age 58
    On 2 October 1978, the Shah declared and granted an amnesty to dissidents living abroad, including Ayatollah Khomeini.
  • 1977
    Age 57
    The overthrow of the Shah came as a surprise to almost all observers. The first militant anti-Shah demonstrations of a few hundred started in October 1977, after the death of Khomeini's son Mostafa.
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  • 1975
    Age 55
    Other actions that are thought to have contributed to his downfall include antagonising formerly apolitical Iranians — especially merchants of the bazaars — with the creation in 1975 of a single party political monopoly (the Rastakhiz Party), with compulsory membership and dues, and general aggressive interference in the political, economic, and religious concerns of people's lives; and the 1976 change from an Islamic calendar to an Imperial calendar, marking the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus as the first day, instead of the migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina.
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    However, by 1975 he had abolished the multi-party system of government in favour of a one-party state under the Rastakhiz (Resurrection) Party.
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  • 1973
    Age 53
    In December 1973, only two months after oil prices were raised by 70 percent, he urged OPEC nations to push oil prices even higher, which they agreed to and more than doubled the price.
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    The Shah also manipulated America's dependence of Middle Eastern oil; although Iran did not participate in the 1973 oil embargo, he purposely increased production in its aftermath to capitalise on the higher prices.
  • 1972
    Age 52
    When Nixon's National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger visited Tehran in May 1972, the Shah convinced him to take a larger role in what had, up to then, been a mainly Israeli-Iranian operation to aid Iraqi Kurds in their struggles against Iraq, against the warnings of the CIA and State Department that the Shah would ultimately betray the Kurds.
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  • FORTIES
  • 1969
    Age 49
    In April 1969, he abrogated the 1937 Iranian-Iraqi treaty over control of the Shatt al-Arab, and as such, Iran ceased paying tolls to Iraq when its ships used the Shatt al-Arab.
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  • 1967
    Age 47
    On 26 October 1967, twenty-six years into his reign as Shah ("King"), he took the ancient title Shāhanshāh ("Emperor" or "King of Kings") in a lavish coronation ceremony held in Tehran.
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  • 1965
    Age 45
    The second attempt on the Shah's life occurred on 10 April 1965.
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  • 1964
    Age 44
    In July 1964, the Shah, Turkish President Cemal Gürsel and Pakistani President Ayub Khan announced in Istanbul the establishment of the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) organisation to promote joint transportation and economic projects.
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  • THIRTIES
  • 1959
    Age 39
    They were married in 1959, and Queen Farah was crowned Shahbanu, or Empress, a title created specially for her in 1967.
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  • 1958
    Age 38
    The Shah and Soraya's controversial marriage ended in 1958 when it became apparent that, even through help from medical doctors, she could not bear children.
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  • 1953
    Age 33
    On 19 August 1953, pro-Shah partisans – bribed with $100,000 in CIA funds – finally appeared and marched out of south Tehran into the city centre, where others joined in.
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    On 18 August 1953, Mosaddegh defended the government against this new attack.
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    The Communists staged massive demonstrations to hijack Mosaddegh's initiatives. The United States actively plotted against him. On 16 August 1953, the right wing of the Army attacked.
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    Kermit Roosevelt returned to Iran on 13 July 1953, and again on 1 August 1953, in his first meeting with the king.
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  • 1952
    Age 32
    Shortly prior to the 1952 presidential election in the United States, the British government invited CIA officer Kermit Roosevelt, Jr., to London to propose collaboration on a secret plan to force Mosaddegh from office.
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  • 1951
    Age 31
    They married on 12 February 1951, when Soraya was 18 according to the official announcement; however, it was rumoured that she was actually 16, the Shah being 32.
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    In 1951, Mohammad Mosaddegh was elected Prime Minister and committed to nationalising the Iranian petroleum industry controlled by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) (as Anglo-Persian Oil Company or APOC had become).
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  • TWENTIES
  • 1949
    Age 29
    Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was the target of at least two unsuccessful assassination attempts. On 4 February 1949, he attended an annual ceremony to commemorate the founding of Tehran University.
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  • 1941
    Age 21
    A general amnesty was issued two days after Mohammad Reza Shah's accession to the throne on 19 September 1941.
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    Much of the credit for orchestrating a smooth transition of power from the King to the Crown Prince was due to the efforts of Mohammad Ali Foroughi. Suffering from angina, a frail Foroughi was summoned to the Palace and appointed Prime Minister when Reza Shah feared the end of the Pahlavi dynasty once the Allies invaded Iran in 1941.
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  • TEENAGE
  • 1939
    Age 19
    They married on 15 March 1939 in the Abdeen Palace in Cairo. Reza Shah did not participate in the ceremony. They were divorced in 1945 (Egyptian divorce) and in 1948 (Iranian divorce).
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  • 1938
    Age 18
    After returning to the country, the Crown Prince was registered at the local military academy in Tehran where he remained enrolled until 1938.
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  • 1936
    Age 16
    He would be the first Iranian prince in line for the throne to be sent abroad to attain a foreign education and remained there for the next four years before returning to obtain his high school diploma in Iran in 1936.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1919
    Born
    Nevertheless, Reza Shah was always convinced that his sudden quirk of good fortune had commenced in 1919 with the birth of his son who was dubbed khoshghadam (bird of good omen).
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Original Authors of this text are noted here.
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