Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Turkish officer and statesman Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was an Ottoman and Turkish army officer, revolutionary statesman, writer, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey. Atatürk was a military officer during World War I. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, he led the Turkish national movement in the Turkish War of Independence.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's personal information overview.
19 May 1881
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Norwegian hitman was obsessed with Turkey - Today's Zaman
Google News - over 6 years
Turkey became secular after Mustafa Atatürk, by military force, implemented his harsh reforms 90 years ago. The result? The Shariah lay dormant for 70-80 years. As soon as it was practically possible (Turkey had to implement more human rights to
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Google News - over 6 years
Grup Sözcüsü Bülent Şahan, gençlerin Büyük Önder Mustafa Atatürk'ün adını verdiği Gazipaşa'yı çağdaş ve yaşanabilir bir yer yapmak için çalışacağını kaydetti. Gazipaşa'yı her coğrafyada temsil etmeyi ve tanıtmayı hedeflediklerini belirten Şahan,
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Stat Islamic sau stat Secular? - Ziarul de Iasi
Google News - over 6 years
Sa ne amintim, apoi, de Kemal Mustafa Ataturk, creatorul Turciei moderne, care a mers ferm pe linia secularizarii, a separarii nete a Statului de Biserica si a facut din Armata garantul mentinerii caracterului secular al statului turc
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Erdogan re-elected - Cosmopolis
Google News - over 6 years
In 1926, Kemal Mustafa Atatürk adopted for instance almost entirely the Swiss civil code (Zivilgesetzbuch, drafted by Eugen Huber). Erdogan and the AKP have moved Turkey closer to a fully functioning democracy. The glass may still be half full
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A Sneak Peek into Donald Trump's Dirty Empire - Wall St. Cheat Sheet
Google News - over 6 years
Turkish military police conducted a helicopter raid on the Savarona, a 16-suite, steam-powered, white vessel once used by Turkey's founder, Mustafa Ataturk, and rented out for $40000 a day. Nine Russian and Ukrainian women were detained and then
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Google News - over 6 years
''Gazi Mustafa Atatürk , O´nun kahraman silah arkadaşları, kahraman ordumuz ve ulusumuzun kurdukları Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devleti'ni bunlar mı yönetecek? Türkiye bunlara mı lâyık? '' diyor,TV kanallarını zaplıyoruz.. Demokrasi sadece onlar için
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Umut Azak, Islam and Secularism in Turkey -
Google News - almost 7 years
Depuis la réforme laïque de Kemal Mustafa Atatürk jusqu'aux premières apparitions des partis politiques qui font explicitement référence aux idéaux religieux musulmans, le point commun qui semble vouloir unir les différents morceaux du patchwork
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Engelsiz bir dünya diliyorum - Malatya Güncel
Google News - almost 7 years
Antalya uğur şehrimiz.... mustafa: gardaş amcaoğlun biraz oynasaydı bu maçı kaybetmezlerdi. oğuzhan çok yalnız kaldı... mustafa: Atatürk'ün kurduğu o partiyi ne hale getirdiler. Daha ellerinde bişey kalmadı, bu cümle ile kendilerini kurtarmaya
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Social Politics and the Causes of 9/11 - Considerations
Google News - almost 7 years
In 1919, Mustafa Ataturk, who led the insurrection, wanted to modernize Turkey and bring it into the twentieth century by abolishing the Caliphate, making the country officially secular and ensuring that women were equal. Ataturk was successful
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Tahsin Ozguc, 89, Archaeologist Who Worked Sites in Turkey
NYTimes - about 12 years
Tahsin Ozguc, an eminent Turkish archaeologist whose digs in Anatolia documented the intermingling of Bronze Age cultures and commerce in what is now central Turkey, died on Oct. 28 in Ankara. He was 89. His death was announced on the Web site of Ankara University, but was only recently brought to The Times's attention. For more than 50 years Dr.
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Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
  • 1938
    Age 56
    He died on 10 November 1938, at the age of 57, in the Dolmabahçe Palace, where he spent his last days.
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    In early 1938, while he was on a trip to Yalova, he suffered from a serious illness.
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    The differences of opinion between Inönü (state control) and Celal Bayar (liberal) came to the forefront after İnönü became president in 1938.
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  • 1937
    Age 55
    On 25 October 1937, Mustafa Kemal appointed Celal Bayar as the prime minister of the 9th government.
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  • 1933
    Age 51
    Mahmud Tarzi received Mustafa Kemal's personal support until he died on 22 November 1933 in Istanbul.
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  • 1932
    Age 50
    In 1932, liberal economist Celal Bayar became the Minister of Economy at Mustafa Kemal's request and served until 1937.
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  • 1931
    Age 49
    In 1931, Mustafa Kemal watched the first national aircraft, MMV-1, develop.
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    In 1931, he proclaimed: "In the economic area the programme of the party is statism."
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    In 1931, Mustafa Kemal's intention to establish the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey was realized.
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  • 1929
    Age 47
    In 1929, Mustafa Kemal signed a treaty that resulted in the restructuring of the nation's debt with the Ottoman Public Debt Administration.
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  • 1928
    Age 46
    On 1 January 1928, he established the Turkish Education Association.
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    Over the next several months, Mustafa Kemal pressed for the introduction of the new Turkish alphabet as well as made public announcements to the upcoming overhaul of the new alphabet. On 1 November 1928 he introduced the new Turkish alphabet and abolished the use of Arabic script.
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    On 20 May 1928, Anglo-Afghan politics gained a positive perspective, when Amanullah Khan and the Queen were received by Mustafa Kemal in Constantinople.
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    In the spring of 1928, Mustafa Kemal met in Ankara with several linguists and professors from all over Turkey where he unveiled to them a plan of his to implement a new alphabet for the written Turkish language based on a modified Latin alphabet.
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  • 1926
    Age 44
    In the years following 1926, Mustafa Kemal introduced a radical departure from previous reformations established by the Ottoman Empire.
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    During 1926, a plot to assassinate Mustafa Kemal was uncovered in İzmir.
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  • 1925
    Age 43
    However, their marriage was not happy; after frequent arguments they were divorced on 5 August 1925.
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    On 30 August 1925, Mustafa Kemal's view on religious insignia used outside places of worship was introduced in his Kastamonu speech.
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    In 1925, Mustafa Kemal wore his "Panama hat" during a public appearance in Kastamonu, one of the most conservative towns in Anatolia, to explain that the hat was the headgear of civilized nations.
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    Beginning in the fall of 1925, Mustafa Kemal encouraged the Turks to wear modern European attire.
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  • 1924
    Age 42
    In 1924, three Turkish translations published in Istanbul created controversy.
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    In the summer of 1924, Mustafa Kemal invited American educational reformer John Dewey to Ankara to advise him on how to reform Turkish education.
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    On 1 March 1924, at the Assembly, Mustafa Kemal said:
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    His initial activities began on 1 January 1924, when İnönü, Çakmak and Özalp consented to the abolition of the caliphate.
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  • 1923
    Age 41
    The only political party of the GNA was the "Peoples Party", founded by Mustafa Kemal on 9 September 1923. (But according to the party culture the foundation date was the opening day of Sivas Congress on 4 September 1919).
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    On 29 January 1923, they were married.
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    Mustafa Kemal's private journal entries dated before the establishment of the republic in 1923 show that he believed in the importance of the sovereignty of the people.
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  • 1922
    Age 40
    On 10 September 1922, Mustafa Kemal sent a telegram to the League of Nations saying that the Turkish population was so worked up that the Ankara Government would not be responsible for massacres.
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    In August 1922, Kemal launched an all-out attack on the Greek lines at Afyonkarahisar in the Battle of Dumlupınar and Turkish forces regained control of Smyrna on 9 September 1922.
  • 1921
    Age 39
    After this victory, on 19 September 1921, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was given by the Grand National Assembly the rank of Mareşal and the title of Gazi.
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    After a series of battles during the Greco-Turkish war, the Greek army advanced as far as the Sakarya River, just eighty kilometers west of the GNA. On 5 August 1921, Mustafa Kemal was promoted to Commander in chief of the forces by the GNA.
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  • 1920
    Age 38
    In his message to Vladimir Lenin, the Bolshevik leader and head of the Russian SFSR's government, dated 26 April 1920, Kemal promised to coordinate his military operations with the Bolsheviks' "fight against imperialist governments" and requested 5 million lira in gold as well as armaments "as first aid" to his forces.
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    In 1920, the Misak-ı Milli, which consolidated the "Turkish lands", declared that Mosul Province was a part of the historic Turkish heartland.
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    On 23 April 1920, the GNA opened with Mustafa Kemal as the speaker; this act effectively created the situation of diarchy in the country.
    In January 1920, Mustafa Kemal advanced his troops into Marash where the Battle of Marash ensued against the French Armenian Legion.
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  • 1919
    Age 37
    For a period he worked at the headquarters of the Ministry of War (Harbiye Nezareti) in Constantinople and continued his activities in this city until 16 May 1919.
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    On 4 September 1919, he assembled a congress in Sivas.
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    In June 1919, he issued the Amasya Circular, declaring the independence of the country was in danger.
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    On 19 May 1919, he reached Samsun.
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    Fahri Yaver-i Hazret-i Şehriyari ("Honorary Aide-de-camp to His Majesty Sultan") Mirliva Mustafa Kemal Pasha was assigned as the inspector of the Ninth Army Troops Inspectorate to reorganize what remained of the Ottoman military units and to improve internal security on 30 April 1919.
  • 1918
    Age 36
    Mustafa Kemal Pasha's last active service in the Ottoman Army was organizing the return of the troops left behind to the south of this line. In early November 1918 the Yıldırım Army Group was officially dissolved and Mustafa Kemal returned to an occupied Constantinople, the Ottoman capital, on 13 November 1918.
    Mustafa Kemal arrived in Aleppo on 26 August 1918, then continued south to his headquarters in Nablus.
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    When Mehmed VI became the new Sultan of the Ottoman Empire in July 1918, he called Mustafa Kemal Pasha to Constantinople, and in August 1918 assigned him to the command of the Seventh Army in Palestine.
  • 1917
    Age 35
    In July 1917, he was appointed to the command of the Seventh Army, replacing Fevzi Pasha on 7 August 1917, who was under the command of the German general Erich von Falkenhayn's Yildirim Army Group (after the British forces of General Edmund Allenby captured Jerusalem in December 1917, Erich von Falkenhayn was replaced by Otto Liman von Sanders who became the new commander of the Yıldırım Army Group in early 1918.) Mustafa Kemal Pasha could not get along well with General von Falkenhayn and, together with Miralay İsmet Bey, wrote a report to Grand Vizier Talat Pasha regarding the grim situation and lack of adequate resources in the Palestinian front; but Talat Pasha ignored their observations and refused their suggestion to form a stronger defensive line to the north, in Ottoman Syria (in parts of the Beirut Vilayet, Damascus Vilayet and Aleppo Vilayet), with Turks instead of Germans in command.
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    Instead, on 7 March 1917, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was promoted from the command of the XVI Corps to the overall command of the Second Army, although the Czar's armies were soon withdrawn when the Russian Revolution erupted.
  • 1916
    Age 34
    Following the Battle of Gallipoli, Mustafa Kemal served in Edirne until 14 January 1916.
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  • 1913
    Age 31
    In June 1913, during the Second Balkan War, he took part in the Ottoman Army forces commanded by Kaymakam Enver Bey that recovered Dimetoka and Edirne (Adrianople, the capital city of the Ottoman Empire between 1365 and 1453, thus of utmost historic importance for the Turks) together with most of eastern Thrace from the Bulgarians.
    In 1913, he was appointed the Ottoman military attaché to all Balkan states (his office was in Sofia, Bulgaria) and promoted to the rank of Kaymakam (Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel) on 1 March 1914.
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  • 1912
    Age 30
    On 1 December 1912, Mustafa Kemal arrived at his new headquarters on the Gallipoli peninsula and during the First Balkan War, he took part in the amphibious landing at Bulair on the coast of Thrace that was commanded by Binbaşı Fethi Bey, but this offensive was repulsed during the Battle of Bulair by Georgi Todorov's 7th Rila Infantry Division under the command of Stiliyan Kovachev's Bulgarian Fourth Army.
    Mustafa Kemal, Enver Bey, Fethi Bey and the other Ottoman military commanders in Libya had to return to Ottoman Europe following the outbreak of the Balkan Wars on 8 October 1912, due to which the Ottoman government agreed to surrender the provinces of Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica (present-day Libya) to the Kingdom of Italy with the Treaty of Ouchy (First Treaty of Lausanne) signed ten days later, on 18 October.
    He managed to defend and retain the city and its surrounding region until the end of the Italo-Turkish War on 18 October 1912.
    On 6 March 1912 Mustafa Kemal became the Commander of the Ottoman forces in Derna.
    During the Battle of Derna on 16–17 January 1912, while Mustafa Kemal was assaulting the Italian-controlled fortress of Kasr-ı Harun, two Italian planes dropped bombs on the Ottoman forces and a piece of limestone from a damaged building's rubble entered Mustafa Kemal's left eye; which caused a permanent damage on his left eye's tissue, but not total loss of sight.
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  • 1911
    Age 29
    However, despite all the hardships, Mustafa Kemal's forces in Libya managed to repel the Italians on a number of occasions, such as the Battle of Tobruk on 22 December 1911.
    In 1911, he was assigned to the Ottoman Tripolitania Vilayet (present-day Libya) to fight in the Italo-Turkish War, mainly in the areas near Benghazi, Derna and Tobruk against a 150,000-strong Italian amphibious assault force, which had to be countered by 20,000 Bedouins and 8,000 Turks A short time before Italy declared war, a large portion of the Ottoman troops in Libya were sent to the Ottoman province of Yemen in order to put down the rebellion there, so the Ottoman government was caught with inadequate resources to counter the Italians in Libya; and the British government, which militarily controlled the de jure Ottoman provinces of Egypt and Sudan since the Urabi Revolt in 1882, did not allow the Ottoman government to send additional Ottoman troops to Libya through Egypt; causing the Ottoman soldiers like Mustafa Kemal to go to Libya either dressed as Arabs (risking imprisonment if noticed by the British authorities in Egypt), or through very few available ferries (the Italians, who had superior naval forces, effectively controlled the sea routes to Tripoli).
  • 1910
    Age 28
    Later, in the autumn of 1910, he was among the Ottoman military observers who attended the Picardie army manoeuvres in France, and in 1911, served at the Ministry of War (Harbiye Nezareti) in Istanbul for a short time.
    In 1910 he met with Eqerem Vlora the Albanian lord, politician, writer, and one of the signatories of Albanian Declaration of Independence.
    In 1910 he was called to the Ottoman provinces in Albania.
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  • 1909
    Age 27
    He suppressed the revolt and returned to İstanbul in January 1909.
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  • 1908
    Age 26
    He was proposing depolitization in the army, a proposal which was disliked by the leaders of the CUP. As a result, he was sent away to Tripolitania Vilayet (present Libya, then an Ottoman territory) under the pretext of suppressing a tribal rebellion towards the end of 1908.
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    In July 1908, he played a role in the Young Turk Revolution which seized power from Sultan Abdülhamid II and restored the constitutional monarchy.
    On 22 June 1908, he was appointed the Inspector of the Ottoman Railways in Eastern Rumelia (Doğu Rumeli Bölgesi Demiryolları Müfettişi).
  • 1907
    Age 25
    On 20 June 1907, he was promoted to the rank of Senior Captain (Kolağası) and on 13 October 1907, assigned to the headquarters of the Third Army in Manastır.
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  • 1905
    Age 23
    He later graduated from the Ottoman Military College in Constantinople on 11 January 1905.
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  • 1899
    Age 17
    On 14 March 1899, he enrolled at the Ottoman Military Academy in the neighbourhood of Pangaltı within the Şişli district of the Ottoman capital city Constantinople (now Istanbul) and graduated in 1902.
  • 1896
    Age 14
    In 1896, he enrolled into the Monastir Military High School.
  • 1893
    Age 11
    His parents wanted him to learn a trade, but without consulting them, Mustafa Kemal took the entrance exam for the Salonica Military School (Selanik Askeri Rüştiyesi) in 1893.
  • 1881
    Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was born (under the name Ali Rıza oğlu Mustafa) in the early months of 1881, either in the Ahmed Subaşı neighbourhood or at a house (preserved as a museum) in Islahhane Street (now Apostolou Pavlou Street) in the Koca Kasım Pasha neighbourhood in Salonica (Selanik), Ottoman Empire (Thessaloniki in present-day Greece), to Zübeyde Hanım, a housewife, and Ali Rıza Efendi, a militia officer, title-deed clerk and lumber trader.
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