Napoleon III

First President of the French Republic and last monarch of France Napoleon III

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was the President of the French Second Republic and as Napoleon III, the ruler of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I, christened as Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte. Elected President by popular vote in 1848, he initiated a coup d'état in 1851, before ascending the throne as Napoleon III on 2 December 1852, the forty-eighth anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation.
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Biography
Napoleon III's personal information overview.
Death Place
England

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EXCERPT; Excerpt - The Crimean War - By Orlando Figes
NYTimes - over 6 years
Introduction In the parish church of Witchampton in Dorset there is a memorial to commemorate five soldiers from this peaceful little village who fought and died in the Crimean War. The inscription reads: DIED IN THE SERVICE OF THEIR COUNTRY. THEIR BODIES ARE IN THE CRIMEA. MAY THEIR SOULS REST IN PEACE. MDCCCLIV In the communal cemetery of
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STREETSCAPES | UPPER WEST SIDE; Twins, but They Don't Dress Alike
NYTimes - over 6 years
THE unique development of one West Side block produced an unusual pair of near-twin buildings. But no matter how far out the windows they stretch, the residents of the Evanston, at 90th and West End, will never be able to see the facade of its mate, the Admaston, at 89th and Broadway. After the Civil War, big things were expected of Broadway on the
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Estate of Dallas Socialites Ray and Clare Stern Brings $175000+ at Heritage ... - Art Daily
Google News - over 6 years
The other top highlights from the Estate of Ray and Clare Stern include a pair of monumental French Napoleon III style bronze, gilt bronze and marble figural 13-light Torcheres, which realized an impressive $29875; a French gilt bronze and gilt wood
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Culture at its heart - The Riviera Times
Google News - over 6 years
The French statesman, who also served as prime minister to Napoleon III, had already been married to Blandine, daughter of Franz Liszt and sister of Cosima Wagner, for three years by that stage. Ollivier had many links to the literary and artistic
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Sentimental Journeys - Wall Street Journal
Google News - over 6 years
Ms. Caro's husband is a stalwart admirer of Napoleon I. Her own hero, however, is the great emperor's underrated nephew Napoleon III, because it was he who hired master planner Baron Haussmann to clear the slums of Paris
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French and English Furniture and Decorative Arts Highlight June Auction at ... - Art Daily
Google News - over 6 years
$45000-65000, sold for $54900); an impressive Napoleon III gilt bronze, champlevé and onyx jardinière, third quarter 19th century (est. $20000-30000, sold for $28060); a Louis XV style gilt bronze mounted kingwood vitrine, late 19th century (est
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Winged Victory - Style.com
Google News - over 6 years
Her lavish cocktail in the museum's nineteenth-century apartments of Napoleon III, followed by a sit-down dinner in the Cour Marly sculpture hall, drew over 350 guests, almost all of whom stayed on for an auction under the glass pyramid,
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Cyanide - A Potential Threat to Humans and Animals - Pakistan Daily Times
Google News - over 6 years
Napoleon III was the first to employ hydrogen cyanide as chemical warfare agent. During World Wars I and II, the cyanide gas was used on the battlefield by both sides. Hydrogen cyanide in the form of Zyklon B was also used as a genocidal agent by the
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Not to shock, nor arouse, but to titillate - Daily Star - Lebanon
Google News - over 6 years
Ascending the throne in 1852, Napoleon III determined to clean up the city's act. He commissioned Baron Georges-Eugene Haussmann to redesign the center as an orderly, spacious and sanitary grid. Their radical project resulted in the Paris we know today
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TALK; Operation Seduction
NYTimes - almost 7 years
Elaine Sciolino on Seduction, and France It is not enough to conquer; one must also know how to seduce. - Voltaire, ''Merope'' The first time my hand was kissed a la francaise was in the Napoleon III salon of the Elysee Palace. The one doing the kissing was the president of France. In the fall of 2002, Jacques Chirac was seven years into his
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Some like it haute: French 'palaces' - Financial Times
Google News - almost 7 years
It was Empress Eugénie and Napoleon III's summer residence before it was transformed into a Belle Epoque grand hotel. Although by no means perfect, its imposing presence on the edge of the Atlantic, its spa and swimming pool all make it quite special
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Napoleon III
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  • 1873
    His last words were, "Isn't it true that we weren't cowards at Sedan?" He was given last rites, and died on 9 January 1873.
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  • 1872
    Napoleon passed his time writing and designing a stove which would be more energy efficient. In the summer of 1872, his health began to worsen.
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  • 1871
    Napoleon had limited funds; he sold properties and jewels, and arrived in England on 20 March 1871.
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  • 1870
    Otto von Bismarck, the Prussian Minister-President (his official title as head of the Prussian government), thought that French vanity would lead to war; he exploited that vanity in the Ems Dispatch in July 1870 and France took the bait and declared war on Prussia.
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    From 5 September 1870 until 19 March 1871, Napoleon III and his entourage of thirteen aides were held in comfortable captivity in a castle at Wilhelmshöhe, near Kassel.
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    On 4 August 1870 the Germans attacked with overwhelming force against a French division in Alsatia at the Battle of Wissembourg (German: Weissenburg), forcing it to retreat.
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    The news of Leopold's candidacy, published 2 July 1870, aroused fury in the French parliament and press.
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    In France, patriotic sentiment was also growing. On 8 May 1870, French voters had overwhelmingly supported Napoleon III's program in a national plebiscite, with 7 358 000 votes yes against 1 582 000 votes no, an increase of support of two million votes since the legislative elections in 1869.
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    By 1870, France had 20 000 kilometers of railway, linked to the French ports and to the railway systems of the neighbouring countries, which carried over 100 million passengers a year and transported the products of France's new steel mills, mines and factories.
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  • 1869
    Napoleon presented a proposed treaty of alliance on 4 June 1869, the anniversary of the joint French-Italian victory at Magenta.
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  • 1867
    Italian King Victor-Emmanuel was personally favorable to a better relationship with France, remembering the role that Napoleon III had played in achieving Italian unification, but Italian public opinion was largely hostile to France; on 3 November 1867, French and Papal soldiers had fired upon the Italian patriots of Garibaldi, when he tried to capture Rome.
    Also, the French attempt to install the archduke Maximilian, the brother of the Austrian Emperor, was just coming to its disastrous conclusion; the French troops had just been withdrawn from Mexico in February 1867, and the unfortunate Maximilian would be captured, judged and shot by a firing squad on 19 June.
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    Following the defeat of Austria, Napoleon resumed his search for allies against Prussia. In April 1867, he proposed an alliance, defensive and offensive, with Austria.
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    In the autumn of 1867, Napoleon III proposed a form of universal military service, similar to the Prussian system, to increase the size of the French Army, if needed, to one million.
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  • 1866
    On 12 June 1866, France signed a secret treaty with Austria, guaranteeing French neutrality in a Prussian-Austrian war.
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    In 1866 he added to this an "Edict of Tolerance," which gave factory workers the right to organize.
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  • 1864
    His most important social reform was the 1864 law which gave French workers the right to strike, which had been forbidden since 1810.
  • 1862
    He also sponsored Viollet-le-Duc's restoration of the Château de Vincennes and the Château de Pierrefonds, In 1862, he closed the prison which had occupied the Abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel since the French Revolution, where many important political prisoners had been held, so it could be restored and opened to the public.
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    In southeast Asia Napoleon III was more successful in establishing control one slice at a time. He took over Cochinchina (the southernmost part of modern Vietnam, including Saigon) in 1862, as well as a protectorate over Cambodia in 1863.
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  • 1859
    Napoleon III, though he had very little military experience, decided to lead the French army in Italy himself. Part of the French army crossed over the Alps, while the other part, with the Emperor, landed in Genes (Genoa) on 18 May 1859.
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    It was the Emperor Franz Joseph, growing impatient, who finally unleashed the war. On 23 April 1859 he sent an ultimatum to the government of Piedmont-Sardinia demanding that they stop their military preparations and disband their army.
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  • 1858
    Still facing strong opposition within his own government, In the spring of 1858 Napoleon III offered to negotiate a diplomatic solution with the twenty-eight-year-old Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, but the Austrians demanded the disarmament of Piedmont-Sardinia first, and sent a fleet with thirty thousand soldiers to reinforce their garrisons in Italy.
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    Bernard was in London, where, since he was a political exile, the British government refused to extradite him, but Orsini was tried, convicted and executed on 13 March 1858.
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    On the evening of 14 January 1858, he and the Empress escaped an assassination attempt unharmed.
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  • 1856
    The Paris Peace Conference of 1856 represented a high-water mark for the regime in foreign affairs.
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    Alexander II sought a political solution, and negotiations were held in Paris in the new building of the French Foreign Ministry on the Quai d'Orsay, from 25 February to 8 April 1856.
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  • 1855
    The death of Czar Nicholas I on 2 March 1855, and his replacement by Alexander II, changed the political equation.
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  • 1853
    He soon had an opportunity; in early 1853, Czar Nicholas I of Russia put pressure on the weak Turkish government, demanding that Turkey give Russia a protectorate over the Christian countries of the Balkans as well as control over Constantinople and the Dardanelles.
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    The civil ceremony took place at Tuileries Palace on 22 January 1853, and a much grander ceremony was held a few days later at Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris. In 1856, Eugénie gave birth to a son and heir-apparent, Napoléon, Prince Imperial.
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  • 1852
    Beginning in 1852, he encouraged the creation of new banks, such as Crédit Mobilier, which sold shares to the public and provided loans to both private industry and to the government.
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    In Bordeaux, on 9 October 1852, he gave his principal speech:
    A decree on 23 January 1852 forbade the late King's family to own property in France, and annulled the inheritance he had given to his children before he became King.
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  • 1851
    The 1851 constitution was retained, with the word "president" replaced by the word "emperor."
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  • 1850
    This new election law was passed in May 1850 by a majority of 433 to 241, putting the National Assembly on a direct collision course with the Prince-President.
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  • 1849
    Elections were held for the National Assembly on 13–14 May 1849, only a few months after Louis-Napoleon had become President, and were largely won by a coalition of conservative republicans—which Catholics and monarchists called "The Party of Order"—led by Adolphe Thiers.
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  • 1848
    According to the constitution of 1848, he had to step down at the end of his term, so Louis-Napoleon sought a constitutional amendment to allow him to succeed himself, arguing that four years were not enough to fully implement his political and economic program.
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    Louis-Napoléon moved his residence to the Élysée Palace at the end of December 1848, and immediately hung a portrait of his mother in the boudoir and a portrait of Napoléon Bonaparte, in his coronation robes, in the grand salon.
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    He did not run in the first elections for the National Assembly, held in April 1848, but three members of the Bonaparte family, Jérôme Napoléon Bonaparte, Pierre Napoléon Bonaparte, and Lucien Murat were elected; the name Bonaparte still had political power.
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    His close advisors urged him to stay and try to take power, but he wanted to show his prudence and loyalty to the Republic; while his advisors remained in Paris, he returned to London on 2 March 1848, and watched events from there.
    In February 1848, Louis Napoleon learned that the French Revolution of 1848 had broken out, and that Louis-Philippe, faced with opposition within his government and army, had abdicated.
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  • 1846
    They had met in 1846, soon after his return to England.
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    On 25 May 1846, with the assistance of his doctor and other friends on the outside, he disguised himself as a laborer carrying lumber, and walked out of the prison.
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  • 1840
    Huge crowds had gathered in Paris on 15 December 1840 when the ashes of Napoleon Bonaparte were returned with great ceremony to Paris and handed over to Louis-Napoleon's old enemy, King Louis-Philippe, while Louis Napoleon could only read about it in prison.
    Living in the comfort of London, he had not given up the dream of returning to France to complete his destiny. In the summer of 1840 he bought weapons and uniforms and had proclamations printed, gathered a contingent of about sixty armed men, hired a ship called the Edinburgh-Castle, and on 6 August 1840, sailed across the Channel to the port of Boulogne.
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  • 1838
    She was finally buried in Reuil, in France, next to her mother, on 11 January 1838, but Louis-Napoleon could not attend, because he was not allowed into France.
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  • 1836
    He planned for his uprising to begin in Strasbourg. The colonel of a regiment was brought over to the cause. On 29 October 1836, Louis Napoleon arrived in Strasbourg, in the uniform of an officer of artillery, and rallied the regiment to his side.
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  • 1833
    He published his Rêveries politiques or "political dreams" in 1833 at the age of 25, followed in 1834 by Considérations politiques et militaires sur la Suisse ("Political and military considerations about Switzerland"), followed in 1839 by Les Idées napoléoniennes ("Napoleonic Ideas"), a compendium of his political ideas which was published in three editions and eventually translated in six languages.
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  • 1831
    In the spring of 1831, when he was twenty-three, the Austrian and papal governments launched an offensive against the Carbonari, and the two brothers, wanted by the police, were forced to flee.
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  • 1810
    Charles-Louis was baptized at the Palace of Fontainebleau on 5 November 1810, with Emperor Napoleon serving as his godfather and Empress Marie-Louise as his godmother.
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    His father was Louis Bonaparte, the younger brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made Louis the King of Holland from 1806 until 1810.
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  • 1808
    Born on April 20, 1808.
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